Biography of Jules Basile Guesde (1845-1922)

Politician and French publicist, whose real name was Mathieu Jules Bazile, born in Paris (France) on November 12, 1845 and died in Saint-Mandé (France) on July 28, 1922. He/She served as Minister of State in 1914.

From a very young distanced himself as an advocate of Socialist ideas and was a journalist for the opposition. After adopting the name of Guesde, Les Droits de l'homme, of Jacobean trend he/she founded in 1870. In July of that same year he/she was imprisoned, accused of reporting, from such publication, the Government by warmongering. It was released after the battle of Sedan (1870). During the Second Empire it belonged in an active way to Republican opposition. His defense of the commune earned him the sentence to five years in prison. He/She fled to Switzerland in June 1871 and later to Italy, where he/she was exiled until 1876. A year later, in 1877, he/she founded the weekly L' égalité Marxist. In addition, his political ideas were disseminated through the continuous emergence of brochures, entitled collectivism and Revolution (1879). This ideology calo in large number of Socialists, thanks to his defense of the class struggle, the conquest of public power and the socialization of the means of production. In 1880 he/she consulted with Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Paul Lafargue (1842-1911) the program of the French labor movement.

With these ideas definitely founded the French workers party in 1882. Their attempts to establish what started in the National Labor Congress of Marseille in October 1879. The program Marxist defended by Guesde was rejected by the anarchists, the blanquists and the posibilistas, which broke away definitively from the Socialists in the year of the formation of the party, 1882. In 1890, he/she participated actively in the creation of the second international, which allowed him to expand his influence in the field of politics, in particular, in the Socialist field. Between the years 1893 and 1898 he/she was Deputy for Roubaix and later served the same post by Lille from 1906 until 1922. In 1904 the ideas of Guesde were imposed during the Congress of the international in Amsterdam. From the very beginning it opposed the participation of the Socialist Millerand in Waldeck-Rpusseau (1899-1900), Government as well as the ideas of Jaurès, who definitively separated. In 1905, it was founded the Socialist unified party that cemented the triumph of the ideals of Guesde. With the outbreak in 1914 of the first world war he/she distanced himself as one of the first defenders of the sacred Union. Between August 1914 and December 1916 he/she joined the Governments of Viviani and Briand (1915-1917) as Minister of State.

In December 1920 he/she attended the Congress held in Tours (France) where he/she remained faithful to the SFIO. Their influence on Pablo Iglesias, and through it in the PSOE, was very marked.

Are some of the most relevant publications has Guesde: Le livre Rouge de la Justice rurale, documents pour serve l 'histoire d' une République sans Républicains (Geneva, 1871); La République et les grèves (Paris, 1878); Essai de cathequisme socialiste (Brussels, 1878); The loi des salaires et ses conséquences (Paris, 1875); Le problème et the solution. Les huit heures à la Chambre (Paris, 1875); Le socialisme au jour le jour (Paris, 1899); Christianisme et socialisme (Paris, 1905); Questions d d'hier et d'aujourd' hui. Le réformisme bourgeois. Les syndicats et le parti socialiste. L'antimilitarisme and the war. The question agraire. La coopération (Paris, 1911); CE et là (Paris, 1914).

MAMJ