Biography of Luis Méndez de. Marqués de Carpio Haro y Guzmán (1598-1661)

Spanish noble born in Valladolid in February 17, 1598, and died in Madrid November 26, 1661. Member of an illustrious Spanish noble family tracing its origins to the middle ages, was the 6th Marquis of Carpio, and was also the first Duke of Montoro. His father was Diego López de Haro, and he was their eldest son and thus heir. It was also nephew of Gaspar de Guzmán y Pimentel, count-Duke of Olivares, he replaced as valid or private King when Olivares fell into disfavor. The kinship came given since Diego López de Haro was the third brother of the count-Duke of Olivares. He received other positions of responsibility at the heart of the Spanish monarchy, both in the private monarch House in the political administration of the monarchy; so it was perpetual Governor of the Palacio Real and arsenal from Sevilla, perpetual great Chancellor of the Indies, State Councillor, Grand Commander of the military order of Alcántara, gentleman of the Chamber of the King and Grand Squire of the King.

Regarding family policy, Luis Mendez de Haro entered it when in the spring of 1626 he married a daughter of the Duke of Cardona. The relationship with the Dukes of Cardona and in special with the widowed Duchess, was profitable in the future when faced with the revolt of Catalonia. This marriage came given once in October 1624 Luis Méndez de Haro saw frustrated to some extent the succession to the estate of his uncle when his cousin María, fourteen-year-old, and with who aspired to a future marriage, was betrothed to Ramiro Pérez de Guzmán, twelve-year-old, within marriage and patrimonial policy of the count-Duke of Olivares. The wedding between Ramiro Pérez and María finally held in 1625, with what Méndez de Haro had to temporarily renounce their aspirations on the legacy of the Duke; but the daughter of his uncle, María, died in 1626 with what were again rebuilt part of its hopes to get much of the heritage of their uncle. But once again he saw don Luis Méndez de Haro cut their aspirations in this regard, in particular to obtain the Duchy of San Lúcar Maggiore, since sixteen years later the bastard son of the count-Duke, Enrique, he married the daughter of the Constable of Castile, Doña Juana Velasco. Intrigue and problems about the heritage of their uncle is definitely bolted to his death July 22, 1645. His son Enrique, who held the title of Marqués de Mairena, by his bastard status had many difficulties in asserting their rights, while Luis Gómez de Haro was the only living nephew of the count-Duke and therefore his direct heir. In 1642 the Duke had made a testament. But the King intervened in the matter and the title of Duke of Olivares and the greatness of Spain gave Luis Méndez de Haro y Guzmán, who has since received the formal designation as the count-Duke of Olivares. Still the case that most interested him personally, the succession to the Duchy of San Lúcar Maggiore was. This issue was resolved because of two circumstances; oor a side the Marquis de Mairena died in 1646 and his young son two years later, in 1648; on the other hand the title continued being held by the widow of the previous Duke. This and some suggestions from their family environment made Luis Méndez de Haro to relinquish the claims I had about the same.

With respect to political life and service to the Spanish monarchy, Luis Méndez de Haro, due to the influence of his uncle, came from a young age at the service of the King's House, and thus, in 1622 he was appointed gentleman by the monarch, who a year earlier, in 1621 had ascended to the throne and it was of the same age as Luis Méndezfor which he always had great sympathy.

While their first political actions were commissioned by the Duke, Luis Méndez de Haro objected from the outset to the policy pursued by his uncle. He worked as a liaison between the meetings of courts of the realms of the Spanish monarchy and the King, mostly between the Valencian courts and the monarch. In date as early as 1626 was when the count-Duke of Olivares said already the first doubts about the loyalty of his nephew to his political work, distrust towards that it justified by the favours of the King Luis Méndez de Haro. This did not stop that you entrust you delicate missions, such as when sent to Andalusia in 1641 to ensure the presence of Duke of Medinasidonia in Madrid, one of the actions that the noble revolt of Andalusia is saved.

When olive left the work of Government in 1643, began a strong struggle for his succession and, initially, did not seem that Luis Méndez de Haro was well located or no special gesture that might portend that he would replace his uncle in the affection of the King initially existed by the monarch. Moreover, the political situation of Luis Méndez de Haro in the Court was compromised when his uncle the Duke began to waver in his health issue was exploited by his rivals to attack your family and commit the ancestry of this in court, what affected him directly. But the King deposited on it your confidence so you meet the diverse and large problems that ravaged to the Spanish monarchy, and which had been caused by the way in which her uncle made her political work, as well as the reality that Spain began to show clear symptoms of exhaustion as the hegemony in Europe. luis Méndez de Haro avoided as far as possible the despotic government that his uncle had been used, but not allowed to discuss his authority. He was also favors dialogue, which resulted from his youth in his affable and extremely polite manners since he started the courtly life, but this did not prevent that it combined with the development of a series of military campaigns when it was necessary.

Another change from his uncle was that it left not enriched with the exercise of the Government or use their influence for private affairs. The political problems he inherited were successful uprisings of Catalonia and Portugal, as well as the attempted to that it was held in Italy. In externally, the conflict with France and the Netherlands in the framework of the thirty years war. All these adverse circumstances were also a reflection of social unrest and economic decline. The main action of Luis Méndez de Haro y Guzmán line consisted in reaching agreements with the foreign powers enemy to so dedicate the military resources of the Crown to resolve internal issues. With respect to the Netherlands, signed, within the framework of the peace of Westphalia, the Treaty of Münster of January 30, 1648, and which ended the thirty years ' war in Europe. It was still pending the resolution of the war with France, which did not happen until more than ten years later. This occurred in 1659, while peace talks kicked off in 1657. Seventeen November 1659, the Treaty of the Pyrenees was signed, the peace was preceded by numerous conversations and meetings, up to twenty-four, with Cardinal Mazarin, Prime Minister of France during the reign of Luis XIV. Meetings that took place on the island of pheasants, at the mouth of the Bidasoa River, which was the border between the two kingdoms. The Treaty established the territorial loss of Roussillon, Artois and several squares of Flanders, Hainaut and Luxembourg. Despite all this, he was rewarded in 1660 with the greatness of Spain by the monarch as well as the granting of the Duchy of Montoro. In this policy of negotiations and in order to attract England against France, the Government of the Spanish monarchy was the first who recognized the English Republican government under the orders of Oliver Cromwell after the beheading of the King Carlos I, but however this approach did not achieve the desired fruits.

In terms of domestic politics, this had its lights and shadows. On the positive side has dominated the unruly part nobility. The outstanding fact of all his Government was the conclusion of the revolt of Catalonia, which had begun in the feast of the Corpus of 1640 (Corpus of blood). End of the revolt came by the success in the conquest of Barcelona by Juan José de Austria, illegitimate son of Felipe IV, and which concluded also called war of Els Segadors. On the side negative and mixture of domestic policy with the outside was the definitive independence of Portugal, United also had revolted against the Spanish monarchy in 1640. The Spanish troops were defeated by the lusas 4 January 1659 at the battle of Elvas. This defeat took place when Hispanics were pursuing the Portuguese within their country once they had participated in the siege of Badajoz square.

In the economic aspect, the promotion of agriculture, concerned that neither was very successful because of the continuous bleeding of labor that came out to the various conflicts in which the monarchy was involved from the field, especially Spanish, tried to. How noble of his era, as heir to the culture of Renaissance and prelude to the age of enlightenment, also promoted the arts and letters. In fact, part of the magnificent library that his uncle, the first Duke, had managed to put together, it was his widowed aunt, notably the codices and most ancient manuscripts, although this in turn gave them to his son Gaspar de Haro, Marquis of Heliches, who in turn gave two-thirds of it to the King. Later, in 1650, three years after the death of his aunt, he was keeper of the books and papers deprived of his uncle.

The reign of Felipe IV


HELLIOT, J. H., the count-Duke of Olivares. Criticism, Barcelona, 1990.