Austrian composer. He started in music with his father. Also gifted with a good voice, he was sent to school in Hainburg in 1738. Two years later he joined as a Chorister in the Cathedral of San Esteban Vienna. Self-taught, he studied music theory. The opposition of his father prevented that the direction of the chapel made of it a gelding. When his voice began to change it was dismissed, and worked as a violinist in Serenade, piano teacher, and valet.
Despite the difficulty of dating his first compositions, it is known that by age 18, he composed his first mass in f major, whose form and Instrumentation changed at the end of his life; at age 24, he wrote a Salve Regina in e major and a Concerto for organ in c major, who later edited for the harpsichord. To 1755 he probably composed the first string quartets (opus 1-3), in addition to songs for comedies and SERENADES. These years also introduced in the theatre, with the music of the farce Der krumme Teufel.
The turning point in his career was in 1761, year that entered the service of Prince Paul Anton Esterházy in Eisenstadt, first as Deputy Minister of the Chapel, focusing immediately on musical life at the Court. In the early days of this employment he composed numerous small works and symphonies of program 6 to 8 (Le Matin, Le Midi and Le Soir). From 1762 he widely developed its activities of composer and conductor. First with the Prince Paul Anton and, after his death, with his brother Nicolás. Under the direction of the musician, the small orchestra became an important musical ensemble. Prince Nicolás liked to play the baryton, for which Haydn composed numerous solos and trios. Between 1761 and 1791, who was in the service of Nicolás, composed of ninety-six symphonies, most of them premiered at the Esterház Castillo, and soon after performed throughout Europe and North America. The twelve "London" symphonies were composed, years later, in London and Vienna. Also during his tenure at the Court of the Prince, he composed numerous small pieces for Orchestra, concertos for other solo instruments, some sixty piano sonatas and almost all his string quartets. Religious compositions of this period include the mass of Santa Cecilia, whose form recalls the misa-cantata of Bach. He created his first oratorio Il ritorno di Tobia (1774-1775), and his cantata Applausus (1768).
He also devoted himself to theatre and with Prince shared a fondness for opera buffa. In this genre he wrote Lo Speziale (1768), La Pescatrici (1769), Il mondo della luna (1777), La vera costanza, l'incontro improvviso, and heroic-comic drama Orlando Paladino. Within the serious opera, Haydn created works such as Armida and L'anima of the philosopher. As conductor he was heading over a hundred performances a year and arranged operas, to write songs for the intermediate of foreign works. In 1785 he received Cadix commissioned to do a work for Orchestra, 7 words of the Redeemer on the cross, then adapted for oratory and String Quartet.
Nicolás Prince died in 1790 and Haydn retired to Vienna with a pension. He was soon called to London, where he composed much of his last twelve symphonies, which were a great success. His two stays in the United Kingdom (1791-1792 and 1794-1795) were of great creative activity, then also composing the last sonatas for piano and trios with piano trio in g major with the rondo all'ongarse, lieder (see lied) on English poems and hundreds of English and Irish folk melodies musicalized for singing and piano trio. In London he had heard various works of Handel, which gave him the idea of his oratorio the creation, then followed by the seasons.
In 1797 he composed the lied Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser, which then was slow in his Quartet for strings in c major theme of the movement. His last work was Armonia-misa (1802), and left unfinished Quartet op. rope 103.
As at the time who lived and his work style, Haydn is located between the late Baroque and the pre-romanticism. It was Catholic, although not of rigid orthodoxy, and began and ended his extensive production with masses. Although sometimes was attempted to give priority to their instrumental compositions on the vowels, should not forget that it was a Chorister, so in the whole of his work these last prominently. An inheritance of Handel is his four oratorios, while it contributed to the development of the lieder. In his conception of the theatre greatly influenced his friendship with Mozart, and his operatic production, most belong to the genre of the opera-bufa.
His greatest influence in music is the instrumental works. He was the creator of the classical Symphony and, according to Rimsky-Korsakov and Richard Strauss, the father of the modern orchestration. The first Symphony in d major (1759) already offers a true conception of the Symphony, though it adheres to the limits of a small Orchestra. With the Imperial he decided to put a slow introduction, whose origin could be located at the beginning of the French Overture in front of most of his symphonies. Personal innovations may also consider the introduction of variations in the slow movement, more individualized instrumentalization and the development of the minuet. Next to the symphonies, he made great innovations in the string quartets. With the series of the op. 9 left the appearance of divertimento; in the op. 20, Sun quartets, went on the run the same value as the movement of sonata, with the op. 33 his definitive style, which was to have great influence on Mozart.
The rest of his instrumental works that have passed into the background, include concert for piano in d major and Concerto for Cello in d major. Also his piano music has been slow to be recognized. His style keyboard corresponds to that of his string quartets and his symphonies. Works such as Sonata in b minor and Andante varié are written in a more developed instrumental style.
Stations (Die Jahreszeiten) 21: 3 H. Performers: Peter Schreier, Gundula Janowitz, M. Talvela, Wiener Singverein, Symphony Orchestra of Vienna; Director: Karl Böhm; Deutsche Gramophon, DG 423 922-2 (2 CDs). The creation (Die Schöpfung) (H) 21:2; performers: Laki, Mackie, Huttenlocher; Collegium Vocale Gent, La Petite Bande; Director: Kuijken; Accent Acc CD 58 228/29 (2 CDs). Te Deum in c major H 23: 2 (for María Teresa); performers: Boys Choir of Wiena, Chorus Wienensis, Wiener Kammerorchester. RCA GD 86 535 QH. Arianna in Naxos H 26b: 2 (cantata); performers: Arleen Auger, Handel und Haydn Society; Director: Christopher Hogwood; 496-2 ZK 2894 25 Dec. Single and pensive H 24b:2O; performers: Arleen Auger, Handel und Haydn Society; Director: Christopher Hogwood; 496-2 ZK 2894 25 Dec. They are pietosa, bonina H 32:1 (Aria of Lindora); performers: Arleen Auger, Handel und Haydn Society; Director: Christopher Hogwood; 496-2 ZK 2894 25 Dec. Symphony No. 49 (La Passione) in f minor; interpreters: English Concert; Director: Trevor Pinnock. Deutsche Gramophon, DG 427 662-2. Symphony No. 50 in c major; interpreters: English Concert; Director: Trevor Pinnock. Deutsche Gramophon, DG 429 757-2. Symphony No. 51 in b major; interpreters: English Concert; Director: Trevor Pinnock. Deutsche Gramophon, DG 429 400-2. Symphony No. 58 in f major (B.A.C.H.); interpreters: English Concert; Director: Trevor Pinnock. Deutsche Gramophon, DG 427 662-2. Symphony No. 53 in d major (L'imperiale); performers: La Petite Bande; Director: Wieland Kuijken. Vir, 259 249 - 231. Symphony No. 64 "Tempora mutantur" and Symphony No. 45 "Good-byes"; interpreters: Schlierbacher Kammerorchester; Director: Thomas Fey; Hänssler CD 98 - 357. Symphony No. 85 in b major (La Reine); performers: Orchestra of The Age of Enlightenment; Director: Wieland Kuijken. Vir, 260 271 - 231. Symphony No. 86 in d major; performers: Orchestra of The Age of Enlightenment; Director: Kuijken. Vir, 260 271 - 231. Symphony No. 53 is greater; performers: La Petite Bande; Director: Wieland Kuijken. Vir, 260 590 - 231. Symphony No. 94 (surprise) in g major; interpreters: The Academy of Ancient Music; Director: Christopher Hogwood. Dec 414 330-2 ZK. Sonatas, Hob. XVI/34, 40, 41, 42, 47 and 48 (Integral works for keyboard, vol. 2); performers: Ronald Brautigam (fortepiano); BIS CD993.Sonata for piano No. 20 in c minor; interpreter: A. Schiff; Den C 37 7801.Sonata for piano No. 23 in f major; interpreter: W. Horowitz; CBS CD 44 681 (3 CDs).Sonata for piano No. 34 in e minor; interpreter: A. Brendel; Ph 416 643-2 (4 CDs).Sonata for piano No. 48 in c major; interpreter: A. Brendel; Ph 416 643-2 (4 CDs).