Biography of Ernest Miller Hemingway (1899-1961)

Ernest Hemingway.

Narrator and reporter, born in Oak Park (satellite city of Chicago, in the State of Illinois) on July 21, 1898, and died on July 2, 1961 in Ketchum (Idaho). Author of an intense and vigorous narrative production, rooted in a conception of life of human existence, despises any concession to the romantic sentimentality and any pretentious other metaphysical to put the reader in the story exciting lives fleeing from the vacuum nihilist by way of risk and adventure, is considered to be one of the most important American of 20th-century letters writers and, no doubt, as the author who most influenced between the narrators American contemporaries, almost all of them are grouped under the label of "Lost generation" (as the own Hemingway). In 1954, according to his literary values and the remarkable trail which had left in American literature produced between the two world wars, the Swedish Academy awarded the Nobel Prize for literature "for his mastery in the narrative genre, recently demonstrated in the old man and the sea," and for the influence that he/she has exerted on contemporary style.

Life and work

Born in a typical American middle class family (was the second son of the marriage formed by doctor Clarence Edmonds Hemingway and the singer and teacher of music Grace Hall), lived a happy childhood beside yours, immersed in learning the rituals of hunting and fishing when his father was very fond of, and surrounded by the enormous popularity of school which soon reached their sporting prowess. Restless, energetic and lively, in fact, as any of their future characters from fiction, the young Ernest Miller then stood out for its efficiency and brilliance in American football and for his excellent talent for boxing practice activities that were not to the liking of her mother, who had been proposed for the boy to continue musical studies and becoming a violoncello virtuoso; unwittingly, Grace Hall contributed to this effort to forge the literary vocation of his son, who (according to his later testimony) began to imagine fictional stories to try to escape from the tedium that suddenly her musical lessons long. Meanwhile, his father (which, victim of an incurable illness, would have put an end to his life in 1928, anticipating the end of the own Ernest tragically) saw with good eyes this predilection of his son by the dynamism and action, although inside he/she hoped to study, as had the career in medicine; to do so, used to take him with you to optional visits carried out among the population of Indian reserves located in the Michigan high, where the future writer received his first traumatic impressions of the tragic dimension of human existence, marked by pain and death.

The bold and impulsive nature of the young Ernest Miller led him to escape from the household at the age of fifteen, but he/she soon returned to Oak Park to complete their secondary studies, already-oriented knowledge of the humanities. Against the will of his parents, once completed this medium formation refused to enroll in the University and being a supporter of the "School of life", was placed as a reporter in the Rotary Kansas City Star, which kicked off a brilliant journalistic career that would continue throughout his life.

In the middle of the second decade of the 20th century, the outbreak of the first world war gave the opportunity to give free rein to his passion for risk and adventure: before the United States of America made official its entry into the international contest, Hemingway embarked towards France and enlisted as a volunteer in the health body of the Allied troopswhere he/she was assigned to the ambulance service. In July 1918, in the Italian front along with the famous body of the Arditi, fell wounded by a bullet on one shoulder that left him several lasting memories: a plate of silver embedded forever in your body; two awards recognizing their proven value (the "Medaglia d 'Argento to the Valore Militare" and the "Croce di Guerra"); and, above all, the traumatic direct encounter with some threat of death, which thereafter became to the young writer into an "evil family" which tried to exorcise by way of confrontation face to face with the danger and violence, as well as through his own literary creation, conceived by him as a vital force destined to survive him. Despite this crucial experience in forging his character and the conformation of his poetry, Hemingway recalled always modestly heroic participation in the conflagration world, with testimonies in which came to regret his little intervention in the armed struggle ("I spent most of time in hospitals", came to testify once).

After the war, he/she returned to his home country and married Hadley Richardson, to begin to reconcile their new married life with the resumption of his journalistic activities, now exercised as a chronicler of the Toronto Star. This newspaper and media Hearts chain appointed correspondent in Europe, so in 1921 travelled again to the old continent and settled in Paris, where he/she soon established good relations of friendship with American writers and journalists gathered around the figure (already by that then matriarchal) from the author of Pennsylvania Gertrude Stein((, whose Parisian home) located in the number 27, rue de Fleurus) was one of the brightest literary and artistic salons of its time, frequented, among others, the painters Pablo Ruiz Picasso and Henri Matisse, and the writers Sherwood Anderson, Francis Scott Fitzgerald and Jean Cocteau. Fascinated by the prose of the Stein and of the American Ezra Pound (who also had opportunity to meet in the French capital), during those years of learning beside such acclaimed authors Hemingway was developing, in the "laboratory" routine journalistic reports, its peculiar narrative technique, which aspired to restore to the reader the "real thing" (according to its own definition)i.e., "the sequence formed by the excitement and the event that has occurred".

Early writings

Erected in the main protector of the novice writer, Gertrude Stein (who is credited with the invention of the "Lost generation" label) then read all texts of Ernest Hemingway and honored him with their friendship: he/she was the godmother of her first son, John Hadley, and responsible for presenting the artistic and intellectual community of Paris his first bookpublished under the title of Three Stories and Ten Poems (three stories and ten poems, 1923). However, the writer of Oak Park soon found its own style and an original poetry, anchored in his peculiar vision of the world, turned him emphatically prose of Stein and other Parisian influences (such as the of the aforementioned Sherwood Anderson), to present it in the eyes of critics as one of the best exponents of this generation thatmarked by the sign of violence, had just overcome the trauma of a world war to begin to cope with, without remedy, new disasters of international renown (rise of fascism, Soviet tyranny, economic crisis, existential angst, World War II, etc.). It is no wonder that, a few years later, in an essay on bullfighting and art conceived as risk, Death in the Afternoon (death in the afternoon, 1932), Hemingway left stamped this impressive testimony to their learning that, ultimately, can well be applied to the conception of the world of all the members of his generation: "I tried to learn the art of writing beginning with the simplest things; and one of the most simple and fundamental of all things is the violent death."


Fiesta (1926)

This desire to know the horror of death (as Supreme summary of the tragedy of human existence) on-site led to Hemingway to Spain, where he/she managed to break out of these routine rituals of the Parisian intelligentsia that already began to hastiar him, and plunge fully into the dramatic spectacle of life and death facing each other on the sand of a ring. On July 6, 1923 he/she arrived in Paris from Pamplona, and was strongly impressed by the colorful, the explosion of joy, display of risk and, in sum, the festive atmosphere of the San Fermin Festival, up to the end of promptly returning to the capital of Navarre at the time for another four consecutive years (from 1924 until 1927, both included). Fully integrated in pamplonicas penalties, he/she ran in the running of the bulls in front of the bulls, shared food and drink with the waiters, it experienced the euphoria of drunkenness and saw, even fulfilled his desire to meet again closely with death (that Esteban Domeño, first fatality of the Sanfermines starred in the celebrations of 1924, with twenty-two-year-old catching). Strong impressions received in his first visits to Pamplona constituted an important part of the narrative material of the novel that established him internationally as a writer, The sun also rises (the Sun also rises, 1926) - better known in Spain for the title of its English version: party-, where the tragic episode of the death of Domeño left captured. Later, Hemingway would go to Pamplona on four occasions (1929, 1931, 1953 and 1958), and ended up becoming one of regular patrons of the main points of encounter of the Navarre fans, like "Txoko" bar, "Hotel La Perla" and the "Café Iruña" (all of them located in the Central Plaza of the Castillo), or "Las Pocholas" restaurantthe "Hotel Yoldi", "Hotel Quintana", "Café Swiss" and "Casa Marceliano". On July 6, 1968, seven years after his disappearance, the Pamplona City Council wanted to honor his memory and thank the international broadcasting that had conferred the Sanfermines with the inauguration of a monument on the promenade that bears his name, next to the Plaza of bulls of the Casa de Misericordia (event attended by the late wife of the writer(, Mary Welsh). At the base of the sculpture, work of Luis Sanguino, settled this eloquent testimony of gratitude and admiration of the people of Pamplona: "Ernest Hemingway, Nobel Prize in literature, this town friend and admirer of their parties, who knew how to discover and propagate." The city of Pamplona, San Fermín, 1968 ".

A year after the appearance of her debut, the American Narrator had given to the printing press In Our Time (in our time, 1924), a splendid collection of ten stories in which stands, unique, the role of Nick Adams, a young hero from the first world war and destined to reappear in subsequent narrations of Hemingway. After two years (and a few months before the publication of Fiesta), the North American writer returned to the shelves of the libraries with torrents of Spring (waters of spring, 1926), a parody of Dark laughter (black laughter, 1925) of Sherwood Anderson, written (as confessed the own Hemingway) "in honor of a vanished breed". Without solution of continuity, that same year gave the press the aforementioned The Sun Also Rises (the Sun also rises, 1926), novel pioneered the presentation of a vision realistic and disillusioned of the generation that had to live the first great world war. In it, Hemingway reflects the relationships between a group of young supine and decadent people who spend most of their time chatting and drinking in the cafés of Paris; among them stands out the figure of Brett, the novel's protagonist, a young English woman of good social position going to divorce from her husband to join Michael, a blasted compatriot, while in the background it is in love with Jake, an American journalist that a wound of war has left powerless. For his part, Robert Cohn Jew, marked by an apparent inferiority complex, also loves Brett, who, in his relentless pursuit of exotic and dangerous adventures that bring him any reason to continue to exist, drag everyone to Spain, where they witness a bullfight at the plaza de Pamplona. Brett then falls for Romero, one of the matadors who have acted in the navarro coso, which gives rise to different conflicts, notably the outbreak of the desperation of the self-conscious Cohn, who bicker with Jake, Michael and the own Romero. The bullfighter, who seemed willing to marry Brett, just giving to it because it is aware that the young can ruin your life. To the dessert, the English decided to join Michael, whose character is, of all the men that surround it, the most similar to yours.

After the worldwide success garnered by The Sun Also Rises (or, if you prefer, Fiesta), Hemingway returned to the cultivation of the short story (genus which should devote itself as one of the leading specialists of his time) and published the collection of stories entitled Men without women (men without women, 1927), in which it is obliged to point out, for its high literary quality and its sordid and relentless exposure of the facts, the brief narrative graduate "The untamed", starring the veteran Bullfighter Manuel García. Now in the twilight of his career, after leaving a hospital where he/she has been entered for a long time, the old matador is desperately seeking an opportunity to put in front of a bull; Finally, aided by his inseparable friend Zurito, it manages to fight again, but his prolonged inactivity leads him to star in a pathetic performance, which is on the verge of being gored by the beef in the middle of the merciless mockery of the crowd filling the bleachers. Before the distressing inability of Manuel García, Zurito has obliged to kill the bull, in a painful recurrence of the veteran sword that once again, with their bones in the hospital.

A farewell to arms (1929)

The definitive consecration of Ernest Hemingway as the Summit Ridge Narrator of his generation took place at the end of the 1920s, when his novel A Farewell to Arms (a farewell to arms, 1929), translated into dozens of languages, spread the name of the writer of Oak Park by all corners of the world. The large miseries of mankind (in this case, identified in the war, violence, and death) also play in this work an essential role, but now faced with the passion of a loving Idyll that adds a counterpoint of tenderness to the dominant desolation among all the heroes of Hemingway. The American Lieutenant Frederick Henry, volunteer in the health body of the Italian army in quality of ambulance driver, falls for the English nurse Cathérine Berkley, who corresponds to his love and meets with him in Milan to take care of it first when Henry was wounded in combat. After a happy summer in which love and tenderness to relieve the convalescence of the wounded, Catherine reveals to her lover that he/she is pregnant, joyful event for both that looks tarnished, however, by the obligation of the officer's return to the front. Wrapped, shortly afterwards, in the retreat from Caporetto (in which the Italian defeat ended with the tragic balance of two hundred fifty thousand casualties), Frederick Henry just defecting to meet with Catherine in Stressa, with the intention of seeking refuge for both in Switzerland and devote itself only to their love affair; but the happiness of the couple does not last long, as the young English woman dies giving birth to a child who does not survive childbirth.

The fundamental message of a farewell to arms, wrapped in the profound significance of the gesture human renounce violence to attend the meeting of being loved, a ray of hopeful light enters the pessimistic view of the world spread up to then by the work of Ernest Hemingway. In a time shattered by the hatred and despair, where humans do not donde los seres humanos no logran manage to find any solid support in the midst of the collapse of everything what surrounds them, new Hemingway heroes seem to find in love the only possible refuge, something like a private religion that gives the strength (although, to ultimately, always wait the inexorable presence of death) to continue living. That is why, despite the sustained and fast-paced rhythm of action (especially in the story of the feats of war), and while the primary instincts (carnal passion, the outbreak of nerves, the seductive call of blood, etc.) are señoreando (as in all the works of Hemingway) above the intellectual reflections, love does not appear in farewell to arms as a tyrannical and overwhelming force, but rather as a daily haven of tranquillity and tenderness in which things are more insignificant (a kind word, a nickname accomplice, a soft caress or a kind gesture) charge greater importance than the impetuous and angry force of great love tragedies.

Death in the afternoon (1932)

It has since been appropriated in above paragraphs in light output, at the beginning of the 1930s, Death in the Afternoon (death in the afternoon, 1932), an essay on bullfighting and the art of living at the edge of the knife which, thanks to the in-depth knowledge of Hemingway on the subject, sometimes acquires the characteristics of a tauromaco treated complex. The writer of Oak Park, who boasted on occasion of having witnessed the death of a few thousand five hundred bulls, was a true amateur cabal which concluded that "would be good to have a book about bullfighting, written in English", and that "a serious book about a topic as immoral could have its importance". Driven by this desire among teaching and provocative, Hemingway enters the profane reader the intricacies of the fiesta brava, without renouncing the tecnico-biografico sketch of some of the most famous figures of the art of Cúchares, as Juan Belmonte and José Gómez Ortega ("Joselito" or "Cock") - which was never to fight, because the Seville Bullfighter had lost their lives in Talavera de la Reina in 1920three years before Hemingway arrived for the first time to Spain; all as a result of the early knowledge of the party that was in 1932, year of the appearance of the book and, in a happy coincidence, birth who then would be his best friend within the ranks of matadors de reses bravas, Ronda maestro Antonio Ordóñez. Passionate defender of bullfighting, Hemingway also proposes you the reader to live with the bulls, from the veterinary recognition day morning to crawl the last animal struggled in the afternoon; and, dragged by his journalistic job, explains where and when the most important bullfights take place and record other information as interesting as that indicate what are the best locations of the main Spanish squares. It explores, in addition, in the history of the art of Cúchares to analyze the differences between Ronda school classic and sober style and touch more happy and romantic of the Sevillian matadors; and, at the same time, is carried by her literary vocation to recreate the life of the bullfighter, that radiography not only in its moments of splendour, dress the albero lights, but also in its complex and intimate loneliness, fears, superstitions, agonizing struggles between cowardice and the value, and pains resulting from the failure or the Goring.

But above that bullfighting theme that gives meaning to the work, death in the afternoon is a song of love and exaltation to Spain, Spanish culture and the idiosyncrasy of the Hispanic people. American writer, fascinated by the Iberian Peninsula, uses the pretext of his tauromaca passion to celebrate enthusiastically Spanish arts and letters, evokes the Hispanic landscape (with their lights, scents and sounds) with joy, and comes out printed some praise so sincere and vehement as which dedicated to Madrid, which is reputed by "the most Spanish cities in Spain": "When one has been to the meadow and, at the same time, the Escorial just two hours to the North, and Toledo to the South, and a beautiful road to Avila and another beautiful way to Segovia, which is not far from the farm, feel dominated by despair, leaving aside all idea of immortality, thinking that one day there will be death and say goodbye to all that".

In 2005 hit bookstores a new edition of death in the afternoon, full, revised and annotated by Miriam B. Mandel and Anthony Brand, and illustrated with images of the era and bullfighting scenes belonging to the collection of the author.

The green hills of Africa (1935)

Since 1930, Ernest Hemingway resided in the House that had been acquired in Cayo Hueso (Florida), dedicated to fishing and literary creation and accompanied by his second wife, Pauline Pfeiffer, with whom he/she had married in 1927. But his restless and adventurous spirit impelled him to travel constantly in search of those dangerous experiences that gave purpose to their existence and were effective narrative material to his writings. During the first half of the 1930s, along with his new wife Pauline, his friend Karl and Jackson Phillips English Guide, had traveled for a month several territories of the continent African, delivered another of his great passions: hunting. Result of this exciting experience was his tremendous entitled Green Hills of Africa (the green hills of Africa, 1935), in which for the first time in his literary career was introduced himself, with names and surnames, in the action narrated, born of the desire to prove the legend already presented it as an energetic author and, at times, heroiccapable of starring in the most arduous actions and exhibit not only courage and skill to deal with them, but also those values of coldness and impassivity that formed the moral code of his own heroes. It extremaba therefore, his unitary conception of life and literature; or, if you prefer, its firm belief that who is stubborn in recounting the "real thing" (with the events that have led to it and the emotions that emerge from it) must have lived in their flesh.

Halfway between the report on a safari and the account of the experiences and relationships of real subjects who star in it, the green hills of Africa is read as a real novel, with tasty descriptions of the landscape, the natives and the customs of the places through which passes the departure of hunters. He/She confessed the own Hemingway, its initial purpose to be retold this adventure was, in a way, an experimental literary exercise: check "If the landscape of a country and the description of a month of action can compete with an imaginative work". But, ultimately, the green hills of Africa was far beyond his hunting interest and literary aspirations: Hemingway, who in his works already published, both its own modus vivendi had shown their disdain for snobbery metaliterario, their distrust towards the pretentious speculation, its rejection of the pompous and bombastic rhetoric of affected writers and, hence his admiration for who had managed to capture the great feats of human courage, with simplicity and sobriety took account of his African adventure to formulate all of a poetry that was, at the same time, a code of conduct to guide you through life. In his opinion, nearly all large North American authors of his time was had spoiled by their ridiculous intellectual pretensions, his inordinate vanity and its presumption of believing himself superior beings capable of create opinion and lecture from atop a pedestal readers. Had become (always according to the bold assessment of the writer of Oak Park) in "lice of literature", parasites, pampered by a professional critic that only guided by their own interests; had, in short, lost direct contact with the common people and the roughness everyday life, to be located in a fictional Ethereal region from which watched with fatherly superiority to the rest of us. In their proceeding dominated a totally contrary attitude inherited from the already veteran reporter who was, and rooted in the need to mingle directly with the protagonists of the "real thing" that sought to capture in his works (either taking an active part in the battle, running before the horns of the bulls in Pamplona or across African Savannas in a hunting expedition).

Works of the Decade of the 1930s

The outbreak of the Spanish Civil war led to the return of Hemingway to the Iberian Peninsula, as a war correspondent. Critics noted the inaccuracy and carelessness of his Chronicles, defects that are not surprisingly that, more focus on coverage of the conflict, was devoted to take literary notes of what he/she saw to his around, which he/she developed to 1937, its drama entitled The Fifth Column (fifth column, 1938), which did not premiere in New York at the end of the 1930s (as intended) because entrepreneur It funded the Assembly was killed when he/she was selecting the cast of actors. Yes saw the light, on the other hand, in that same year of 1937 his novel To Have and Have Not (have and have not, 1937), the first of his works in the American continent. His action, which takes place between Key West (or Cayo Oeste,) in the peninsula of Florida and Cuba (a country where he/she would settle the American writer in 1938), reveals the adventures of the rough and lonely Harry Morgan, owner of a boat that is often lease the fishermen of their environment when not intended him to smuggling. The courage and coarseness of the protagonist are couples to the vigorous and Impressionist description of adventures and maritime operations, and couldn't be any less a work of Hemingway, of numerous violent situations (disputes of cantina, gruesome deaths, primitive rituals, etc.). The firmness of the rude Morgan, relentless in their lonely struggle with life, contrasts with insubstantial laxity of the rich owners of yachts that flock to these coasts looking for fishing or rest.

Although it did not release (by the fatal mishaps already pointed above) until 1940, the drama La Quinta Columna was born in a volume entitled The Fifth Column and the First Forty-Nine Stories (the fifth column and the first forty-nine stories, 1938), in which Hemingway picked up, in addition to the theatrical text, the short stories he/she had written until then. The sum of all of them offers a finished sample of hobbies and personal experiences that had nourished its arguments cuentisticos (hunting, fishing, Bulls, armed avatars and constant proximity to violence and death); but, above all, they constitute the best printed testimony of his particular literary style, characterized by objectivity in the statement of the facts, sobriety extreme use of vocabulary and syntax, and, in general, the economy needed to highlight the expressive values inherent in the description and dialogue.

By whom tolls (1940)

Although Ernest Hemingway was one of the first foreign intellectuals who, after the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, had requested their inclusion as volunteers in the Republican troops, the truth is that never arrived to take active part in the armed struggle. Comfortably installed in the Florida Hotel in Madrid, between occasional visits to the front and shipments of its inaccurate Chronicles of war to the media that works, not only wrote the already annotated theatrical piece La Quinta Columna, but also abundant sketches that would be his best novel (in the opinion of the American author). It's For Whom the Bell Tolls (for whom the bell tolls, 1940), written in the Hotel Ambos Mundos, Havana, city which should reside (and which soon acquired the finca Vigía, San Francisco de Paula) until a few months before his death.

The title of the novel, which caused great surprise at the time of his appearance, comes from reflections in prose of the English metaphysical poet John Donne that, translated into Spanish, they come to say: "any man's death diminishes me, because I am part of mankind. And therefore, do not send to ask for whom the bell tolls. They bend for you". Under the prior warning, then, is to a novel about death, the reader is confronted with the romantic adventure of Robert Jordan, a young American teacher who, enlisted in the international brigades, it receives the order to fly a bridge to prevent the withdrawal of Franco's troops, and thus facilitate the victory of the Republican offensive. To mingle with people from both sides, the actor warns that the misery of the human condition (hate, pettiness, lies, injustice, etc.) reign in identical power in the breasts of the two factions fighters; but his conviction to be sacrificed for a just cause pushes it to keep fighting until the end next to the Republicans. Beside this main plot line runs the love story starring Robert Jordan and María, a young man who has not managed to overcome the psychological damage caused by the harassment to which it was subjected by nationals. But the great feminine creation of Hemingway in this novel (and, perhaps, in the sum of its prosistica production) pillar, a peasant Gypsy so ugly as wise, as well as having previously saved pillar, becomes head of the guerrilla command after the moral collapse of Paul, the Commander who tried to defect in a sudden access of cowardice.

Work, in any case, excessively burdened by a sentimentality that is rare in the texts of Hemingway, for whom the bell tolls is far from that master piece that seemed to the author, even if they are not missed them numerous passages of high literary quality. The truth is that I even enjoyed the vast majority of the Spanish Republicans, which was poorly represented on the individualistic and somewhat anarchic spirit of Robert Jordan; However, it achieved a remarkable success in its film version, filmed in 1943 by the American filmmaker Sam Wood, with a cast headed by Ingrid Bergman and Gary Cooper.

On the other side of the river and under the tree (1950)

During his stay in Spain as a war correspondent, Hemingway had met the writer and journalist Martha Gellhorn, sent by the magazine Collier to cover information about the fratricidal strife. He/She gave him to read some own accounts with the plea that teach some literary techniques, and both writers fell in love with it. On November 4, 1940, Pauline Pfeiffer got divorce in Kay West, which gave rise to that Martha and Ernest were married in Cheyenne (Wyoming) in the course of that same month (November 21). Marriage split travel to China (where both journalists, despite being celebrating their honey Moon, worked as war correspondents), and shortly after was established in Havana with the intention to devote itself fully to literary creation. Hemingway began to sketch a new novel whose wording was abruptly interrupted by the outbreak of the second world war, which again aroused his journalistic instinct and prompted him to exercise as a correspondent of the aforementioned magazine Collier.

Immersed again into war heartburn, it did not comply with its reporter missions and took an active part in numerous battles (in one of which, developed in the Hürtgen forest, near the German border, was on the verge of losing their lives along with their decimated comrades of the 22nd Regiment, which was virtually butchered). Full international contest, he/she met Mary Welsh, correspondent for the Times, magazine which he/she married shortly after in Havana after having divorced Martha Gellhrn in London. He/She then travelled to Italy in the company of his fourth wife, and there wrote a new novel based on his experiences during the second world war, Across the River and into the Trees (on the other side of the river and under the trees, 1950). It's a story of love and death with autobiographical overtones, starring Richard Cantwell, a Colonel in the American army which has already exceeded the fifty years of age (like grizzled veteran Ernest Hemingway), fond of the consumption of dry-Martini (has Hemingway's carrying in his belt of war two bottles, one with Geneva and another with vermouthin order to always have your favorite combined), and haunted by dark omens that announce you your impending doom (Hemingway wrote this novel in a hospital, almost hopeless by physicians, after being seriously extended an eye infection caused by a piece of metal). The action takes place in Venice in the course of three days, in which Richard Cantwell lives an intense affair with an Italian Countess. The difference between fiction and reality is in that Colonel perished, victim of his serious heart ailments, while Hemingway "miraculously" recovered and was able to return in good health to their cherished city of Havana.

The old man and the Sea (1952)

Back in Cuba, Hemingway dealt with the drafting of which would be his last novel published in life, The old man and the sea (the old man and the sea, 1952), work inspired by the personal vicissitudes of an actual being, the Cuban fisherman Gregorio Fuentes (1898-2002). It's a review serene and reflective, supported by the sober and laconic style of Hemingway's epic model created by Herman Melville in Moby Dick (1851), here centered on fighting deaf, heroic and everyday of the actor unleashed forces of nature. Awarded the prestigious Pulitzer Prize in 1953, and mentioned a year later by the Swedish Academy as one of the indisputable merits that made Hemingway worthy of the Nobel Prize, this novel was interpreted, from the moment of its appearance, as a fable of defeat and a melancholy farewell testament; something like a singing resigned to the epic of the failure, handed down by an author who already had no encouragement to enrich their stories with this vitalist intensity (though always overshadowed by the looming threat of pain, violence, and death) animating in the background to the characters of his juvenile works.

Posthumous works

After the Nobel Prize, Hemingway followed by dragging this hectic life and travel that had carried since her teens, although certainly already weary of a constant wandering that, despite his fatigue and his weariness, would still lead you to old scenarios of their youth adventures (thus, v. gr., Pamplona in 1958, where he/she lived his last San Fermin). He/She continued pergeñando latest (or sketches of works) that they did not see the light until after his death, but it ended up being overcome by exhaustion, discouragement, the apparent diminishing of youthful vigor and the threatening presence of the disease, unequivocal symptom of decadence in a man who had done the action flag of hitch throughout his life. After the fatal shot that put an end to its existence in his Idaho home, on the eve of the San Fermin Festival of 1961, two unpublished novels were found among his papers: A Moveable Feast (mobile feast, 1964) - published under the title of Paris was a party (1964) - and Islands in the stream (Islands adrift, 1970). In the first one, if you would like to recover through the magical power of the written word the splendor of his youth years, he/she reviewing their episodes of joy, anxiety, amusement and despair in Paris in the 1920s; in the second, on the other hand, he/she assumed in a crude portrait the devastating effects of old age.

Journalistic texts in his youth were collected By-Line: Ernest Hemingway (Special Envoy: Ernest Hemingway, 1967), volume of great interest for the study of the evolution of his style, as it is well reflected its progressive path from journalism to literature. By the end of the 20th century, one of the sons of the Oak Park writer recovered and gave to print the unpublished manuscript of truth at dawn (1998), an unfinished novel, autobiographical cut, which Hemingway had begun to write in 1954, after one of his latest African expeditions. In 1959, the arrival in power in Cuba of Fidel Castro led to the abandonment of the Caribbean island of much of the Americans there settled, including the own Hemingway, who retired in 1960 to his home in Idaho and left unfinished the voluminous manuscript of this second-season history; the edition of his son reduced the vast unfinished original more than eight hundred pages, and resorted to one of the best profile to extract the title that finally came to light.

We could mention, finally, some of the titles of those stories that Ernest Hemingway, aside from further critical discussions about the quality of his work, has been unanimously recognized as Supreme Master of contemporary short fiction, as "The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber" ("the short and happy life of Francis Macomber", 1938), "The Snows of Kilimanjaro" ("the snows of Kilimanjaro(, 1938 ") and"The Killers"("the killers", 1938).


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Related topics

United States of America: literature.

J. R. Fernández Cano