Biography of Hisham I (757-796)

Second Umayyad emir of Al - Andalus (788-796), born in the year 757 in Cordoba and died on April 28, the 796 in the same city, which was the son and successor of the founder of Emirate Abd al - Rahman I (756-788). To strengthen his position on the throne, he/she conducted successfully several aceifas against the Christian kingdoms of the North of Spain, in whose advance reached the walls of Carcassonne (France). He/She promoted the beautification of the capital of the Emirate with famous monuments, notably the Aljama mosque, which carried out a major reform. Man very religious, was in al - Andalus in the more orthodox Koranic school, maliki, whose initiator, Malik ibn Anas, taught by then in the East.

War for the throne

Second son of Abd al - Rahman I and the slave called Halal, on the death of his father occupied the cordovan throne by designation of his father to the detriment of the first-born son Sulayman and the third brother Abd Allah. The lack of rules of primogeniture in Muslim law was more than reason enough so arose the dynastic conflicts between the three brothers. Hisham I had to deal with the claims of the two brothers to the throne until, after a year long bloody civil war, he/she was able to defeat them forcefully, after which sent them into African exile forgiving them life.

The reign of Hisham I

The seven years of the reign of Hisham I were relatively quiet if we compare them with the tumultuous reign of his father, who was in charge of transmitting to his successor a Kingdom pacified and secured before any kind of rebellion or secessionist claims and against the advance of the Christian kingdoms of the upper mark. Thus, Hisham I could reign in a pacified Emirate and the prestige of the Umayyad lineage at the top.

The most significant rebellion that faced the cordovan monarch actually were two consecutive, both of yemeni sign and located in the eastern part of the upper mark. The first was acaudillada by Saïd, a son of the famous al - Husayn ben Yahya Al - Ansari (who closed the gates of Zaragoza Charlemagne), and the second by Matruh ben Sulayman al - Arabi, an alleged participant in the glorious battle of Roncesvalles which decimated the franca Charlemagne's cavalry. Hisham I could repress easily both attempts with the dispatch of some contingents of troops and thank you, especially, to the support of the Banu Qasi, powerful muladi family of the Valley of the Ebro which already began to play an important role in a region of such strategic importance for those times.

The military against the Christian kingdoms campaigns

After suppressing an attempt at rebellion by the ethnic group of the Berbers in the region of the serrania de Ronda, to the extent that the region did not recover until well into the ninth century, with an unusual violence Hisham I could dedicate all their efforts in bringing the holy war against the kingdoms of the Northwhich had profited from the momentary situation of confusion by the fratricidal civil war which arose between the three brothers for the throne to significantly expand their territories.

The capital of the Asturian Kingdom had been transferred from Cangas de Onís to Oviedo by order of Alfonso I (739-757), with which the Asturian Kingdom began an expansive policy in order to occupy the Valley of the Duero, intention, which was conveniently answered by Cordoba troops. The first aceifa carried out it two bodies of punishment in the summer of the year 791, under the command of Ubayd Allah ben Uthman and Yusuf ben Bujt. The first ascended by the Valley of the Ebro to Alava, city that took weapons inflicting a severe defeat on the Christians, while the second went to Astorga to confront and defeat the Asturian King Vermudo I (788-791).

The aceifa of the following year aimed to penetrate to the very heart of the Frank Kingdom. The expedition addressed it one of the best generals of al - Andalus, Abd al - Malik ben Abd al - Wahib, which attacked Álava for a second time, again from where addressed, the following year, the Frank Aquitaine Kingdom, where successfully attacked the squares in Girona and Narbonne. It also inflicted a defeat without precedent to Guillén, Duke of Toulouse, on the Bank of the Orbien River. The Muslim advance was finally dampened before the walls of Carcassonne, lacking sourcing and military capacity to continue moving further north, far away from Cordoba.

Hisham I continued with its military harassment against Christians throughout the period of his reign, organizing every summer the consequent aceifa of punishment by the adjoining grounds of the upper mark. The last campaign of Hisham I, in the year 795, managed to snatch the Christian population of Astorga and was about to make prisoner to King Alfonso II (791-842) in the mountains of Asturias, where forced to abruptly flee after holding a battle on the banks of the river Nalón. The following year, Hisham I died prematurely at the age of thirty-one years. Before he/she died had worried about successor to appoint his son al-Hakam I (796-822), to avoid the same problem you had to face when he/she took the Throne from Cordoba, which could not avoid that you reopen the civil war for the throne. Two uncles of the heir, Sulayman and Abd Allah, who never had the intention of renouncing the throne, rushed to return from his African exile in order to provoke conflict in al - Andalus.

Other aspects of the reign

Worried, as almost all the cordoban Emirs, for the welfare of his subjects, Hisham I spent much of the fabulous booty that conquered in their raids by Narbonne in the founding of two twin mosques raised next to the foot of the Citadel. He/She also did a number of buildings in the capital city, turning Cordoba into the most beautiful city of the Peninsula at that time, such as the construction of the great bridge of Córdoba, superb for the time. He/She also continued with the expansion of the Aljama mosque, which erected the first Minaret of the same, as well as a destined to ablutions dependency attached to the Eastern wall of the temple.

It was probably of all the Emirs who showed more religious zeal, because it instilled his subjects his own religiosity and proselytizing by introducing the Koranic school in al - Andalus maliki, the most Orthodox and radical of the existing four, which elevated to official status. Hisham I disclosed the doctrine personally granting fees and perquisites to the alfaqies of this legal school, mainly to the cordoban Yahya ibn Yahya, a direct disciple of Malik ibn Anas. His religiosity earned him the nickname of al - Rida ('one who is satisfied').

Bibliography

CHEJNE, Anwar G. history of Spain Muslim. (Madrid: Ed. Cátedra. 1980).

GLICK, Thomas F. Christians and Muslims in medieval Spain (711-1250). (Madrid: Ed. Alianza Editorial. 1991).

GUICHARD, Pierre. The Muslim Spain: Umayyad al - Andalus (siglos VIII - XI). (Madrid: Ed. Group 16. 1995).

LEVI PROVENÇAL, E. Muslim Spain until the fall of the Caliphate of Cordoba (711-1031). Volume history of Spain's Menendez Pelayo nº 4. (Madrid: Espasa-Calpe ed. 1992).

Carlos Herraiz García.