Biography of Hisham III (975-1036)

Last cordoban Caliph of al - Andalus (1027-1031), brother older than the ill-fated Caliph Abd al-Rahman IV Al - Murtada (1018), born in Cordoba in the year 975 and died in Lleida in 1036, exiled from Cordoba and refuge in the Court of the kinglet of the city, Sulayman ben Hud. His reign coincided with the end of the caliphal institution in al - Andalus, which ushered in the period known as the Kings of taifa (muluk at tawaif).

After the expulsion of the last Caliph hammudid Cordoba, Yahya ibn Ali Ibn Hammud (1021-1023, 1025-1026), thanks to the collaboration of wrens slaves of Almería and Denia, Jayran , and Muchahid, respectively, in June 1026, the Cordoba nobility, led by a member of the old family of the Banu Abda, Abu al - Hazam Yahwar, tried last time restore the Caliphate in the person of a member of the Umayyad dynasty. Cordoban notables agreed as requirement to Enthrone the candidate that this was recognized by the numerous jefecillos and independent Slavic and Al-Andalus Lords who swarmed throughout Al - Andalus, in order to present it as a kind of coalescer or national champion in the fight against the common enemy, the Berbers, considered to be the sole source of all the evils that al - Andalus had been suffering since the fall of the amiries in 1009.

After an exhaustive search of almost a year, found the perfect candidate. It was Hisham ibn Muhammad ben Abd al - Malik, brother major Abd a-Rahman IV al - Murtada, the hapless hero of the ill-fated adventure grenadine. The candidate, who lived from the early days of fitna (civil war) in the castle of Alpuente, Northwest of Valencia, hosted by the Lord of the fortress, Abd Allah ben Qasim al - Fihri, did not manifest any rush to take possession of a throne as dangerous and problematic as el cordobés. Cordoba was no longer desirable prey for any Prince, Umayyad or not, that ambitious to a vacant throne. Anyone who was installed in the Alcazar of the descendants of the immigrant (Abd al - Rahman I, founder of the independent in 756 Emirate), knew very well that exposed his own life for a title stripped of all its glory and splendor, and by a few insignificant material profits, as well as a territory on which reign that you stretched a little beyond the alfoz dominated by concocts it Cordoba. All provinces Caliphate (Seville, Granada, Jaen, Elvira, etc), had already long had ignored the caliphal authority, governed by their respective local dynasties. Anyway, Hisham agreed to the requirement that it did and was proclaimed Caliph in the month of June of 1027, with the title or laqab of al - Mutadd bi-llah (' he/she who trusts in Allah'), although he/she continued to live in Alpuente, while waiting is when completely the sensitivities that his appointment had raised in Cordoba.

After two and a half years of his proclamation, in December of 1029, Hisham III made its appearance in Córdoba, at the head of a small, nondescript retinue, and was installed in the imposing Alcazar inherited from elders. The impression that caused his new minions, who couldn't have been more disappointing, heralded what was to be his reign.

As all Córdoba was suspected, the Caliph not stayed behind, mediocrity and inability to govern, with respect to their immediate predecessors. Hisham III, recalling the days of the Caliphate of Hisham II (976-1009, 1010-1013), delegated the Government in his Prime Minister. Hakam ben Saïd, a Weaver intriguing and old upstart, which conferred full powers, while he/she worried only enjoy Golden existence that had attempted you to Córdoba with all possible luxuries. Hakam assumed real command of the ship of State, with an arrogant attitude that led to an endless succession of abuses of all kinds, especially economic, to the point that the public Treasury was bleeding until your last dinar. In addition, Hakam dismissed almost all officials Court, whose posts covered with young Libertines less scrupulous if possible to the vizier and the Caliph, only to their personal medro. To alleviate the absence of money in public coffers, Hakam imposed a series of taxes contrary to Koranic law that could gather enough money to cover the profligate expenses of a court abandoned completely the constant lust and administrative and political drift. To the logical protests of Quranic Jurists, Hisham III and Hakam threatened these to start a bloody repression against anyone who would dare to confront the power of the Caliph and of his Vizier. This episode broke the patience of the Cordoba aristocracy and sealed the beginning of the end, of the reign of Hisham III and the institution of the Caliphate in al - Andalus.

Cordoba aristocracy decided to get rid of such zany. This caused a rising population, led by another relative of the Umayyad dynasty, Umayya ben Abd al-Rahman ben Hisham ben Sulayman, which Cordoba aristocracy promised the throne if he/she murdered the vizier hated Hakam. The promise as such was not true, since the remarkable Cordoba, with Abu al - Hazam head, had decided in advance definitely dispense with the Caliphate as a form of Government, dignity fictional that you already did not correspond to any reality, temporal or spiritual, and replace it with a Council of Notables, who would manage the city and the little territory that depended on it.

Umayya fulfilled his word. It brought together a group of disgruntled supporters and gambled with them on the street by which ordinary the vizier was going to go to Palace. Hakam was literally ripped apart the 30 November 1031, while his head was paraded through the city at the end of a Pike to the general joy of all Córdoba.

Once calmed down, the unhappy Umayya was ordered to leave the city before possible, under penalty of death. Hisham III, to be account of what was happening to her around, took refuge, died of fear, in a dependence of the mosque, taking advantage of a passageway linking it with the Alcazar. Met the Council of Notables, the verdict of the Assembly was the penalty of banishment to the dethroned Caliph. Although Hisham III still dared to protest the decision, at the bottom it welcomed to have been able to save lives, when the tonic general in such a situation was the death penalty or the immediate execution. Hisham III went into exile in Lleida, where he/she found asylum under the protection of the Firecrest, Sulayman ben Hud. In 1036 he/she died in those lands, dark and without clarification.

With this inglorious and distant descendant of Abd al - Rahman I the immigrant, has ended forever the long roster of Al-Andalus Princes who ruled in al - Andalus. Without a doubt, the once magnificent Emirate and cordoban Caliphate did not deserve an end so sad and pathetic as that did, process initiated since the reign of Hisham II captive and that, in just a quarter of a century, collapsed as if it were a House of cards. Missing the caliphal institution, made its appearance the period of the Kings of taifa (muluk at tawaif).

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