Biography of Huayna Capac o Huaina Capac. Emperador inca (¿-1527)

Eleventh inca monarch according to the list that is clear from the oral tradition preserved by the Spaniards. He/She was born in the second half of the 15th century and died in 1527; It was sixteen years old in 1492, when he/she began to rule as the successor to Tupac Inca Yupanqui. He/She conquered the quiteño territory, which added to the Tahuantinsuyo, and established his capital at Tomebamba (current basin). He/She was father of Huascar and Atahualpa, and possibly died in a smallpox epidemic.

Tito Cusi Hualpa was called, and he/she was crowned with the name of Huayna Cápac on the death of his father Tupac Inca Yupanqui in 1493. It had more than seventy half-brothers, sons of other concubines of his father, among which highlighted Cápac Huari, son of Mama Chiqui-Ocllo, who was appointed heir by Tupac Inca Yupanqui. Mama Ocllo, Coya or the principal wife of the deceased Inca and mother of Huayna Cápac, defended the rights of this hatch throughout a palatial plot with the help of his brother-in-law Huamán. They hid the heir in Quispicanchis to save his life, and then revealed in Cuzco mounted ruse to take the throne, killing two concubines who were accused of having poisoned the old Inca. Cápac Huari suitor was executed or, depending on version of hair of Balboa, was banished from Cuzco and sent to an ideal retreat, according to their rank. Another version said that Huayna Cápac was named heir by his father Tupac Inca Yupanqui, and was half-brother Cápac Huari who hatched the plot to seize the throne. In terms of Huayna Cápac, was proclaimed Inca, marrying the same day her sister the ñusta Cusi Rimay, converted into coya.

Huayna Cápac already met with little chance of continuing to expand the inca Empire after their fathers conquests. The tawantinsuyo or world of the incas was limited by the South with the fearsome Araucanians of Chile, with Amazonian tribes East and West with the ocean. Its unique possibilities of expansion were in the North, where his father had initiated the conquests in Quito, more than which other Conquerable villages existed. Before leaving for the northern region, Huayna Cápac said well the territory of Peru, after killing some rebellions and performing some conquests; among the first was that of natives of Carangue. It instructed his captains so that they dominate them and then ordered slaughter to fifteen thousand. His blood blushed the lagoon, which was called since then Yaguarcocha, or "blood Lake". The Inca Garcilaso justified this cruelty: "made the punishment the Inca Huayna Cápac went to Quitu, well hurt and complaining that his reign acaeciesen crimes so heinous and inhuman, necessarily requiring severe and cruel punishments against their natural condition and all its history, that is preciaron of mercy and clemency". Military conquests included those of the provinces of Chachapoyas and Moyopamba, already in the eyebrow of the jungle. When he/she was celebrating in Cuzco. these victories came you news of the rebellion of some northern towns. Huayna Cápac moved to Quito, and undertook a series of engagements which enabled him to fully master it there. Then he/she followed more northward, to the Ancasmayo River (now on the border of Ecuador and Colombia). This was the northern end of the incaizado world, beyond which estimated that there were only very primitive peoples.

Huayna Cápac killed the King of the Quitos and married his widow, Caranqui, which, according to the Chronicles, was young and very beautiful, and had her son Atahualpa, which means 'strong cock' in it. In Cuzco had been her son Huascar, named to succeed him. Then realizing the impossibility of governing an empire that stretched from what is now Colombia South to the Maule River in Chile, from Cuzco he/she decided to settle in Tomebamba, an Ecuadorian City (predecessor to the current basin) where you installed his court in a Grand Palace, decorated with red shells. He/She also made a Sun Temple and a monastery for 600 virgins or acllahuasi. The Inca thought a place closest to the Sun God, since this did not never shadow on certain days of the year (Solstice, to be near the Equator). His distancing of the imperial capital deeply angered priests and traditional nobles who remained in Cuzco, which closed ranks in the lathe to the Inca Huascar future, with a personality that contrasted greatly with Atahualpa, since it was only desirous to Warrior businesses.

To 1525 the tahuantinsuyo was devastated by an unknown epidemic, which resulted in numerous deaths. Cieza speaks of an attack of smallpox which killed more than two hundred thousand people, what has been commonly accepted. It had been spreading from Mexico, where the Spanish conquistadors had introduced it. Santa Cruz Pachacuti said, however, that it was measles, while other authors have spoken of malaria, and Pablo Patrón said that it was the wart. Either way, Huayna Cápac fell ill and died of the disease, after having ruled for 35 years.


ALCINA FRANCH, j. "Los Incas" in SALMORAL, l. et to the. History of Latin America. Cátedra, Madrid, 1992, t. I.

BRUNDAGE, W. C. Empire of the Inca. University of Oklahoma, 1963.

KAUFFMANN DOIG, F. Peruvian archaeology. Lima, 1970.

LEVILLIER, R. The Incas. Sevilla, 1956.

PATTERN, p. "The deadly disease of Huayna Cápac" in the chronic medical, XI, 131, Lima, June 15, 1894.