Biography of Husayn ibn Alí (1854-1931)

Political and religious Arab leader born in Mecca (Saudi Arabia) in 1854 and died in Amman (Jordan) on June 4, 1931. He was King of Hejaz and Sharif of Mecca between 1908 and 1916 from 1916 to 1924. It was recognized by Muslims as descendant of Muhammad. His people was considered the father of the Arab revolution.

He was a member of the family Hashemite, which took control of Mecca during the 19th century. In 1908 he succeeded his father as Sharif of Mecca. His authority was recognized in the same year by the Government of the young Turks (see: revolution of the young Turks), with those who had established a close relationship during his stay in Constantinople in his youth. Subsequently, low the domino Turkish Arabia, ibn Ali became the Governor of the region of Hejaz. It took the outbreak of the first world war to break the bonds of dependency on the Ottoman Empire. In 1915, he signed a secret Treaty of friendship with the United Kingdom, under which this nation would support him in his fight to get rid of the Turkish yoke. In 1916 during the first world war, he led a successful revolt against the Turkish presence in Arabia. Ibn Ali was convinced such action by Colonel Lawrence of Arabia, who received the guarantee from the British Government that all Arab lands that were not under French control, they would receive independence.

In October 1916, after helping the British to expel the Turks from Arabia, proclaimed himself ruler of the region of Hejaz and all Arabia. However, his allies only recognized him formally as King of the Hejaz. One of his sons, Faysal, was put at the head of an Arab contingent that cooperated with the British and French troops in expulsion of the Turks from Syria and Palestine. Husayn was represented at the Versailles peace conference by his son Faisal. Believing that the British would not fulfill the promise of granting the independence of Arabia and as a protest against the mandates imposed on Syria, Palestine and Iraq by France and Britain, at the end of the war he refused to sign the Treaty of Versailles. As a response, the British withdrew their support in his fight against Ibn Saud, King of Nedjed, for control of Arabia.

Ibn Saud inflicted you its first defeat in 1919. His foreign policy was marked by her increasing greed and conservatism. However, it had to do with dislike how increased the power of his great rival, Ibn Saud. Ibn Ali fought to nullify the moral authority of the Caliphate; Thus, once on March 3, 1924, the Turkish National Assembly abolished the dignity of Caliph, Husayn Caliph of Transjordan, was proclaimed on March 12, 1924. One of his first decisions was to excommunicate Ibn Saud, who responded to this action by declaring war, and throwing at troops on the territory of Hejaz Wahhabi in September 1924. Husayn was surprised by this action and was finally defeated by Ibn Saud that same year, and the sovereign of Hejaz was forced to abdicate on 5 October and to renounce its claim to proclaim himself Caliph. His religious and political ambition was based on the fact that it was member of the Hashemite family, a branch of the tribe of Quraysh, to which the Prophet Muhammad belonged. Ibn Saud in 1925 took completely the domain of Husayn, who was forced by the British decision to exile in Cyprus, where he remained until 1930. Subsequently, he moved to Amman, then the capital of Transjordan, where his son Abdullah had been proclaimed emir. He died a year after being buried in Jerusalem. Husayn had four children: Ali, Abdullah, Faisal and Zayd. The first one replaced him as King of Hejaz in 1924, but was also forced to abdicate the following year. Abdullah became King of Transjordan and Faysal King of Iraq.

JLGC