Biography of Zarina de Rusia Isabel Petrovna (1709-1761)

Czarina of Russia's Romanov Dynasty, born in Kolomenskoye (near Moscow) December 18, 1709 and died December 25, 1762 at Petersburgo. Yelisaweta Petrowna (in Russian) was a daughter of Pedro I the great and Catherine I.

Before rule had to consider, after the death of his father, the reign of her mother Catherine I (1725-1727); his nephew Pedro II, son of his half-brother Alexios (1727-1730); his cousin Anna Ivanovna (1730-1740), and Iván VI (1740-1741). It had lived withdrawn, oblivious to politics, on the outskirts of Moscow, dedicated to the practice of different sports and hunting. Pretty, blonde, blue-eyed polyglot, easily to make friendships, soon became the candidate of the anti-German party (several characters from this origin flocked the main government jobs). Thus, when the Tsarina Anna died and named successor to Iván VI, son of his niece Ana Léopoldovna, a baby of a few months, it was pressed by the Russian nobility, and the French and Swedish ambassadors. Reluctant at first to lead a coup, finally, in December 1741 was put in charge of a company of soldiers that captured the Iván VI family and sent her to the Arctic, while the young Tsar was first locked up in Siberia and then at the fortress of Schusselburg, where many years later, would die murdered in 1764.

Isabel, the new Tsarina, was then thirty-two years: not as such it would lend great attention to politics, devoting himself to increase his wardrobe, amusement and her lover, Alejo Razumovski, a Cossack pastor who contract marriage secret in 1750, and would appoint to that count; It would have also other lovers, and all them enriched them. The guys from one of them, Pedro and Alejandro Shuvalov, were able to do with the direction of Russian politics, on the other hand played efficiently. It would be so when you reactivate the economy and trade, and Isabel founded with help of Mijail Lomonosov Moscow University (1755) and the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts (1757) and reorganized the Academy of Sciences. The construction of a new Palacio of winter Petersburgo tasked with the Italian architect Carlo Bartolomeo Rastrelli in 1754.

On the other hand, he did call the Court to Pedro (Pedro III), the only son of his sister Anna and Carlos Federico, Duke of Holstein - Gottorp, and named him successor. A few years later he married to a German Princess, Sofía Augusta Federica of Anhalt-Zerbst (afterwards Catherine II the great), who soon won the favor of Isabel. When in 1754 Pedro and Catalina had a son, Paul, and both spouses are thus it was Isabel who took care of his education. One of the few matters of State that attended was the seven years war against Prussia, which threatened to spread over the Baltic Sea; Isabel almost completely defeated the Prussian King Federico II the great, but before complete victory died in January 1762, victim of a hemorrhage. It had around 53 years of age.

Bibliography

ANISIMOV, Empress Elizabeth E.V.: Her Reign and Her Russia. (Gulf Breeze, Academic International Press: 1995).

COWLES, V. The Romanovs. (Barcelona, Noguer: 1975).

LONGWORTH, Ph. The three empresses: Catherine I, Anne, and Elizabeth of Russia. (New York, Rinehart and Winston: 1973).

TALBOT RICE, T. Elizabeth Empress of Russia. (London, Weidenfeld and Nicholson: 1970).

WARNES, D. Chronicle of the Russian Tsars. (London, Thames-Hudson: 1999).

Links on the Internet

http://marchif.crosswinds.net/texte/21/21352.html ; Page with genealogical data of Isabel Petrovna (in French). http://members.surfeu.fi/thaapanen ; Page with information about the Romanovs (in English). http://www.moscowkremlin.ru/romanovs.html ; Page with various information and images on the Romanov (in Russian).