Biography of rey de Inglaterra y Escocia Jacobo I Estuardo (1566-1625)

King of England (1603-1625) and Scotland with the name of Jacobo VI (1567-1625). On 19 June the year 1566, was born in the castle of Edinburgh, and died at Theobalds, Hertfordshire County, on March 27, the year 1625. First Estuardo King of England, was the only son of the Queen of Scotland María Stuart, and her second husband, Henry Stewart, baron of Darnley. Staunch defender of Royal absolutism, was supporter of peace with the rest of European countries and promoted the expansion of the English in the American colonies.

Following the murder of his father, killed in a bombing took a pump when the young Prince was only eight months old, her mother returned to marry the Earl of Bothwell. Shortly after, María Estuardo was forced to abandon the Scottish throne thanks to the triumph of a noble revolt who immediately recognized the young James as King of Scotland, solemnly crowned on 24 July of the year 1567, with barely a year of age recently fulfilled. maría Estuardo left the Kingdom on 16 may of the year 1568 not to never see again his son. Jacobo VI was at the mercy of a small core of the great Scottish nobility, which exercised the Regency of the Kingdom while continuing struggles between aristocratic factions themselves topped, manifested in the rapid succession of the regencies of the Earls of Moray (her uncle), Lennox, Mar and Morton, all of them, without exception, for all its minority, killed either executed by order of the King, always at the behest of his favorite of the day.

Although the young King spent his childhood isolated and away from the Affairs of State, but he/she received a careful education until the age of fourteen, mostly biblical and literary. James VI knew perfectly Greek, French, and latin. The books he/she inherited from his mother opened the universe of French poetry that has always been a big fan, to the point that, in his youth, wrote verses in that language. Thanks to the work of his tutor George Buchanam, Jacobo VI expanded their intellectual horizons towards the field of classical thinkers and writers, waking up also in him an interest in the history books. In 1583, the young monarch was kidnapped by the powerful Scottish Protestant party led by the Earl of Gowrie, but could regain his freedom the following year.

His youth, too eventful, but it exacerbated his nervousness, instilled in him also an extreme prudence and a safety in their decisions and absolutist approaches, as it was demonstrated when, at the age of fifteen, he/she sent to arrest and execute the Earl Morton, accusing him of being the direct harasser of the murder of his father, King episode he/she failed to clarify conveniently before the Scottish nobleswho asked an explanation for such an act so strongly. Once also got rid of the annoying Earl Gowrie and your favorite Arran, both by the pressure exerted by the Queen Elizabeth I of England, Jacobo VI began to reign alone, in the manner of a true King absolutist and imbued by divine grace, as he/she conceived his reign.

In August of the year 1589, Jacobo Estuardo married the Princess Anna, daughter of the King of Denmark, Federico II, with whom he/she had his first son male in the year 1594, the Crown Prince Henry. James VI never showed a special appreciation for women in general, nor her lover met any, due to the concept that had paper that should assume the wife of the King, which should be limited to beget sons, to be a good wife and mother.

His obstinacy allowed him to restore completely ruined, monarchical authority in Scotland for more than one century, and replaced the old feudal organization of the Kingdom with centralized management. He/She even managed to impose Royal authority on the Presbyterian Church of Scotland. Very early on, its policy was determined by the need to maintain good relations with Isabel I of England, every time that it had no direct male heirs not being married, to ensure the succession to the English throne. When his mother, María Estuardo, Isabel I prisoner for more than twenty years, was executed at Fotheringhay in the year 1587, Jacobo I just limited to rise a slight formal protest, being careful not to break its relations with Isabel I.

In the year 1597 Jacobo VI published in Scotland the Demonology Treaty, which gave a clear idea of great spirituality which the King owned and his mastery of religious philosophy. At the same time, two years later took a small private of his book Edition Basilikon Doron (gift of the King), which rescued the genre typically medieval known as "mirror of princes" with high moral and pedagogical and content intended for the education of the heir to the throne. The administration of the Kingdom entrusted it to a set of competent bureaucrats palatial, which was called the Group of the octavianos, which then collided with the Scottish Presbyterian Church, without that Jacobo VI sagged a bit in its goal to strengthen the Royal authority to the other powers of the Kingdom.

In the last years of the reign of Isabel I, Jacobo VI maintained a smooth private correspondence with the Secretary of State of the English Queen, sir Robert Cecil, who at the time was to become his most faithful and valid server, once Jacobo Estuardo inherit the throne of England after the death of the Queen, on March 24, the year 1603.

Proclaimed King of England, as Jacobo I, he/she moved to London, leaving Scotland to his former colleagues, the octavianos; only return to Scotland once, in the year 1617. Throughout all of his English reign, Jacobo I introduced in his court a large group of Scottish nobles who were never accepted by the English nobility and the plain people, who saw them as foreigners and usurpers, and Jacobo I reserved to the best part of the territories of the Ulster Irish and colonial cities in North America.

The most prosperous period of his English reign lasted nine years, until the death of his Minister and collaborator sir Robert Cecil, he/she had been appointed Earl of Salisbury in payment for their services. Two favorites followed Robert Cecil on, Robert Carr, Viscount Rochester, Earl of Somerset, and George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, who ended up putting an extraordinary and pernicious influence on the King and his second son Carlos, become heir to the Crown after the sudden death of the eldest son Enrique.

The first action of Government of Jacobo I as King of England was the restoration of peace with the Kingdom of Spain, the country that admired because of the great influence that it had on the Spanish Ambassador in London, don Diego Sarmiento de Acuña, where from Gondomar. Persuaded by this, Jacobo I dismissed sir Walter Raleigh, head of the war party, to put in place their favorite Robert Cecil. On the other hand, the Anglicanism of his new State corresponded to their particular religious feelings, which irrupted you both with the powerful English Catholic faction, that had placed so many hopes on him, as the English Puritans. His excessive severity with regard to the Catholics led to frustrated the gunpowder conspiracy, in October of the year 1605, while a year earlier it had decreed the expulsion of all Catholics of his Kingdom in retaliation by denial of the Pope Clement VIII to excommunicate some powerful and annoying Catholics for the political interests of the monarch. James I also failed in its purpose of joining England with Scotland, which even managed at purely commercial level. Due to his idea of the divine right of kingship, his strongest showdown held it with the English Parliament, and particularly sir Eduard Cock, Chief Justice of the Court, who held and defended the theoretical principle of the supremacy of the law emanating from Parliament, above any decree of the King. Therefore, in the year 1611, Jacobo I suddenly dissolved the Parliament, since this would have flatly rejected several economic projects presented by Robert Cecil, for reconvening it two years later and return to dissolve it so soon refused to support their proposals. Until the year 1621, Jacobo I not returned to inaugurate a new parliamentary cycle, which also followed a quick deletion.

After the death of the Crown Prince Henry in the year 1612, his second son Carlos became heir to the throne, linking through a close friendship with the Almighty and ambitious Duke of Buckingham. At the end of the year 1622, the Crown Prince and his inseparable friend traveled by his own initiative at Madrid to arrange the wedding of the heir to the daughter of the Spanish King Felipe III, Jacobo I much desired by the Alliance, but didn't reach fruition, partly because of the determined opposition of the count-Duke of Olivares, and another to haughtiness and great rudeness that the English Prince showed. Aware of the failure of the negotiations, Jacobo I interpreted as an offense to their dignity as King Spanish plante, radically changing their future attitude towards the Crown of Spain, which began to be considered as a staunch enemy of England. James I Allied then with the other big continental power, the Crown of France, after which concluded the marriage between the Prince of Wales and the sister of Luis XIII, María Enriqueta, union that Richelieu imposed a clause by which the English king promised to respect the rights of English Catholics. James I, pressed by his son and by the Duke of Buckingham, ended up giving, always thinking in religious peace that both wanted and strengthen the dynastic ties between England and the most powerful kingdoms of the continent. Therefore, he/she also married his daughter Isabel with the elector of the Palatinate, Federico V, leader of the Protestant German and which would be later crowned as King of Bohemia. Both dynastic links reopened the old enmity between England and Spain. Year and a half before his death, the effective power of the Kingdom passed into the hands of his son Carlos (future Carlos I) and the Almighty Duke of Buckingham.

King angry, unresolved and somewhat undecided at times of his reign, Jacobo I don't never enjoyed the popularity or the appreciation of his English people all together, as did its predecessor Isabel I, which, if possible, ruled in a manner more absolutist than the own Jacobo I, but instead Yes knew how to cope with the low country and middle classesidentifying, for better or for worse, with his people and communicating with him in his constant travels throughout the Kingdom. James I, because of his great short-sighted political, just understood neither the rights nor the character of the English Parliament, real cornerstone of political relations in England. His son Carlos I would pay with his own life the continuity of his father absolutist policy, meets on his way with a figure such as Oliver Cromwell.

Man of great erudition, as we have already pointed out, Jacobo I wrote a number of literary works: essays of a Prince in the divine art of poetry (1584); A fruitful meditation (1588); Poetic exercise (1591); Demonology (1597); Basilikon Doron (1599); The true law of the Greek Kings (1603); Apology for the pledge of allegiance (1607); and the maker of peace (1616).

Bibliography.

DURHEIN, Michel. maría Estuardo: the woman, the myth. (Barcelona: Ed. Emecé Editores. 1991).

HOUSTON, S. J. James I. (London: Ed. Logman. 1975).

KISHLANSKY, Mark. A. monarchy transformed: Britain 1603-1714. (London: Ed. Allen Lane. 1996).

MALCOLM SMUTS, R. The Stuart court and Europe. (Cambridge: Ed. Cambridge University Press. 1966).

PATTERSON, William Browm. King James I and the meeting of Christendom. (Cambridge: Ed. Cambridge University Press. 1997).

SPECK, William Allen. History of Great Britain. (Cambridge: Ed. Cambridge University Press 1996).

TOBIO, Luis. Gondomar and the English Catholics. (A Coruña: Ed. Edicios do Cutro. 1987).