Biography of King of la taifa de Almería Jayran o Hairan (ca. 970-1028)

King of the taifa of Almeria and Murcia born to 970 and died in Almeria in 1028. It was the first to consolidate the independent power in the taifa of Almeria. Although almost always shown as supporter of the Umayyad, allied with the different sides that were formed during the fitna, always in accordance with its own interests.

Jayran, whose name means prosperous - Prospero was probably his Christian name — was a slave eunuch confidential servant of Almanzor, who, for his good services, Almanzor granted control of the cora de Almería, very important as its capital the naval base of the Caliphate. In his youth he/she was captured and castrated by the Jews of Lucena.

After the death of Abd al - Rahman Sanchuelo in 1009, Jayran, which was already general of the caliphal army, took the match by the Berber faction that exalted Sulayman Ibn to Al - Hakam Ibn Sulayman, but when this was defeated in May of 1010 by Muhammad II, a grandson of Abd al-Rahman III which had already usurped the throne in life of Sanchuelo, Jayran took party for the second, but for a short time, since the Slavs of Cordoba killed Muhammad II (23-VII-1010) and proclaimed that prisoner was by order of the murdered Caliph Hisham II. Despite their previous commitment to Sulayman, Jayran remained loyal to Hisham II during the siege suffered Cordoba between November 1010 and April 1013 by Berber, in front of which was the own Sulayman Ibn al - Hakam; his army managed to take the city April 19, 1013 and Jayran participated in the defense of the door in the suburb of Saqunda, where he/she was injured, abandoned on the battlefield and left for dead. He/She could return to the city and take refuge in a friend's House, where it remained hidden until they were healed his wounds.

A few months Jayran had managed to gather an army of Slavs, operating from the East and the Levant, managed apoderarse de Tudmir and expel it before the end of 1013 the Berbers. Once he/she controlled the cora de Tudmir his Government commissioned the Slavonic Zuhayr, whose loyalty could always count. The army of Jayran was swelling its ranks since then and arrived to meet a significant body of Knights that went to the conquest of Almería, which fell into his power after a siege of twenty days, in July of 1014. During this siege, he/she had to against the Governor of the city, Aflah, and their children, who were strong in the Alcázar, while Jayran seized the medina and from there attacked their enemies, destroying the Tower of the well of the Alcázar. When he/she entered the fortress Jayran killed Aflah and their children and made to throw their bodies into the sea.

In 1016 Jayran was already a consolidated King allying with one or other Lords of Al - Andalus at their convenience. That year, Alí Ibn Hammud, a Berber who had been appointed Governor of Ceuta by Sulayman, rebelled against the Caliph and requested the help of Jayran to expel it from Cordoba. The Lord of Almeria, which still remained true to the cause of Hisham II - who probably died in 1013 - agreed to accompany the Berber and proclaim him Caliph of al - Andalus in case that Hisham had died. During the time that Jayran embraced hammudid cause and left the party Umayyad expelled from Almería many characters addicted to the Umayyad cause, as the historian Ibn Hazm, who held prisoner for a few months before ejecting it from the city. Coligados, Jayran and Alí Ibn Hammud took the city of Córdoba and captured Sulayman Ibn al - Hakam. Although not clarified if Hisham lived or not, Ali ordered to assassinate Sulayman and proclaimed himself Caliph. This Act won the enmity of Jayran, since then conspired to throw Cordoba Alí Ibn Hammud.

It is known by a brief mention of Ibn Hazm, to Mujaahid of Denia, displeased with Jayran by their collusion with the hammudids, I declare you the war and blockaded the coast of Almería with his squadron. Nothing is said about the date of this war, although presumably that it must occur to 1016, because, as we shall later see, Jayran returned to embrace the Umayyad cause shortly after. The little that is known about this war is that the roads were cut by land and by sea.

Jayran sought, since the proclamation of Ibn Hammud, a new Umayyad pretender to the Caliphate and found him in the person of a grandson of Abd al - Rahman III, called Abd al - Rahman Ibn Muhammad Ibn Abd al - Malik to, to whom proclaimed Caliph in Jativa April 29, 1018, with the title of al - Murtada. But to expel from Córdoba to Alí Ibn Hammud and proclaim to al - Murtada Jayran got military support from Ibn Yahaya Al-Mundhir of Zaragoza and Ramón Borrell de Barcelona, its plans were favored by the assassination of the Caliph hammudid. Jayran got that her suitor was recognized by Governors Mubarak and Valencia Mudaffar, Labib of Tortosa, Yahya Ibn Al-Mundhir of Zaragoza, Ibn Hud, Governor of Tortosa and Ibn Qasim in Alpuente. But the plans of Jayran changed when he/she realized that the Caliph was not willing to submit to its dictates; the King of Almeria decided to dispense then with al - Murtada and found the opportunity in the campaign for the new Caliph against the Zirid of Granada; Jayran and Al-Mundhir of Zaragoza, who had accompanied al - Murtada attack Granada, abandoned it and retreat to Almería; Al - Murtada was able to escape to Guadix, but there was assassinated by order of Jayran.

In 1021 Jayran tried to intervene in the Affairs of the Levant and appointed Governor of Murcia to a grandson of Almanzor, Muhammad Ibn Abd al - Malik, to oppose the designation as haajib of Valencia of Abd al - Aziz, another grandson of Almanzor, who had been proclaimed in Játiva and had the recognition of Mujaahid of Denia. But when Abd al - Aziz was expelled from Jativa by the same fatás who had handed power, Jayran got is to recognize its sovereignty over Játiva and Abd al - Malik began to overrun their plans, so it was expelled from the city and embraced in Denia by Mujaahid.

In may 1026 Jayran and Mujaahid allied to occupy the city of Cordoba, which during the previous years had known anarchy and had referred to the lift and fall of different Caliphs, held by opposing factions. With the rise of Yahya ibn Alí ibn Hammudto the Caliphate, Córdoba, who did not want a Berber Caliph, called both kings who, despite having been enemies previously marched together to take the city without a plan default a candidate to replace Ibn Hammud; his mere presence in the city was enough to be unleashed a rebellion which ended with a massacre of Berbers and the fall of Yahya Ibn Hammud. Both Jayran and Mujaahid left Cordoba without attempting to restore an Umayyad to the caliphal throne. Jayran returned to Almeria, where it failed to return to never leave.

The death of Jayran between June and July of 1028, by natural causes, and probably inside their fortress, took power in Almería and his comrade Zuhayr, who had been appointed heir to few months before cora the Tudmir.

In the years that Jayran headed Almeria it rushed varied urban reforms, promoted different constructions and carried out reforms in existing buildings. To him is due the expansion and fortification of the fortress built by Abd al - Rahman III, the expansion of the quibla of the mosque and the construction of part of the wall that encircled the suburb located to the East of the medina, among other important works.

Bibliography

DOZY, R. Histoire des Muslim d'Espagne juste la conquête de l' Cordoba pas les Almoravides. Paris, 1932.

JOVER ZAMORA, J. M. (dir). "The Taifa kingdoms. Al - Andalus in the 11th century,"in history of Spain Menéndez Pidal, vol. VIII-I. Madrid, Espasa Calpe, 1994.

TAPIA GARRIDO, J. A. General Historia of Almería and its province. T. III. Almeria Muslim I (711-1172). Almeria, 1986.