Jewish religious teacher, whose biographical data and doctrine are exposed in the New Testament. According to these data, Jesus is the Messiah promised in the old testament, announced by the prophets, and the incarnate Son of God for the salvation of all men.
Jesus was born in Belén de Judá (Palestine, today Israel), a Virgin named María, and had as its adoptive father José, married with one. His birth took place probably between 9 and 5 B.c. spent his childhood, adolescence and youth in Nazareth. The news of his life is very limited during that time. When he/she was about 30 years, became baptized by Juan the Baptist in the Jordan River, and began his preaching that lasted about three years. During that time he/she visited several times Jerusalem. With his preaching and the miracles that accompanied them, but above all with his love and preference for the poor, the marginalized and the sick, won the will of the multitudes, who saw in him someone who talked like who has authority. Jesus formed in lathe to a group of disciples who were accompanying him, among which a special place occupied the twelve apostles, who at the end of his life was the continuation of his mission. At the same time, however, he/she began to grow a deep concern among the Jewish religious authorities, especially between the Sadducees. Many of his followers also felt disappointed because Jesus is not manifested as the King that they expected, the descendant of King David, which would restore the splendor to the Jewish people, and would free them from the Roman yoke. The Jewish authorities, through the treachery of one of his disciples, Judas Iscariot, made arrest Jesus and took him to the Roman court accused of treason to the César. For its part, the Jewish Court found him guilty of blasphemy by have been equated with divine dignity and royalty. The result was his sentence to death on the cross, ordered by the Roman authority (towards the year 30 ad). The Gospels recount in detail the latest developments in his life, from the last supper with his Apostles, until his burial. The New Testament recounts, in its most important part, the resurrection of Jesus Christ after three days of being buried.
No doubt, some traits of the personality of Jesus can be extracted of the facts referred to in the Gospels and his preaching, but it is impossible to develop a biography in the strict sense. The earliest references to the person of Jesus in non-Christian documents appear in ancient sources, both Jewish (Flavius Josephus and the Talmud) and Pagan (Tacitus and Suetonius).
There are many testimonies about the preaching of Jesus Christ in the Gospels. The content focuses on the announcement of the Kingdom of God: "the time is fulfilled and the Kingdom of God is near" (Marcos, 1.15). The hope and the expectations of the Old Testament have come to an end. The Kingdom of God means for Jesus the world to regain its original grace and love purpose; It is the announcement of the release of slavery that weighs on the man, and the victory over the demon and his powers. However, the sole object of the word of Jesus was not proclaiming the arrival of the Kingdom, but also announce that he/she himself was the culmination of that Kingdom. Jesus corroborated his preaching with wonders or miracles, as well as demonstrate their love for the sick and needy, they were signs of the authenticity of his message, tangible proof that spoke on behalf of God. Jesus himself says this relationship (Lucas, 11,20). In the heart of his teaching is the fact of presenting an image of God as good father of all men (cf. Dios Padre). The arrival of the Kingdom consists of the appearance of the love of God, his grace and his mercy. The love of Jesus, his being "for many" (Marcos 14.24) on living and loving, and finally his death on the cross, constitute the Supreme witness of the love of God to men. Jesus calls all men to come into that realm, but to do so requires conversion, change of life, and above all attitudes interior with respect to the goods and values of this world, as it can be summarized in the discourse of the Beatitudes (Matthew 5). Jesus calls his doctrine the "good news" (Gospel) of salvation. The rupture with previous schemes is reflected in the specific attitude that Jesus takes against the law of the old testament, to the point of putting on the same level as Moses: "ye have heard that it was said (...)" but I say unto you"(Matthew 5.21).
There is also a new interpretation of the law and the precepts in it: "Saturday is for man and not man for the Sabbath" (Marcos, 2.27; 3.4), in the sense that the most important thing is the man, and not the rite or customs imposed by men.
Highest and deepest of the relationship of Jesus with God is formula Abba ('potato'), with which is directed to him. The uniqueness of their special relationship as son of the father is manifest in the expressions "my father" and "your father" (Jesus never uses the expression "our father"). However, by the means of the expression "your father", it is showing that the fatherhood of God extends to all men. The summary of all his teaching is in a new commandment: the commandment of love. Also the last judgement (see voice trial) will be based on love.
While the message of Jesus has a scatological dimension (see eschatology) by the expectation of imminent revelation of God's final plan, this does not exclude that Jesus built the foundations of a new community that would become the new people of God, or the people of the new Covenant. That community is the Church. The community of believers put in the center of their faith to Jesus, because the self-consciousness of Jesus himself as the culmination of the United. Biblical criticism has as task to establish which elements can be attributed to Jesus himself and what the theological interpretation of the primitive community. The different dimensions of the figure of Jesus are reflected in the various Christological titles which were issuing: son of man, son of God, Savior, incarnate or Messiah, among others. With the passing of the years were emerging tensions and interpretations conflicting with respect to the person of Jesus. That the Church, in its first councils, focused its attention on the theological understanding of its founder: at the Council of Nicaea (325), proclaims, against Arius, the verb is "consubstantial to the father"; in the Constantinople (381), teaches the divinity of the Holy Spirit; in the Ephesus (431), against Nestorius, defines the unity of the person of Jesus and the word; and in the Chalcedon (451) against the monofisismo of Eutiquio, defends the duality of natures in Christ. Through these definitions, the fundamental road map was drawn by where he/she was advancing the Christian theology, not only during the middle ages, but also at the time of the Protestant Reformation, which at no time questioned the orthodoxy of the early ecumenical councils.
Only the rationalism of the 18th century opened a gap on the traditional Christology, to try to reduce the person of Christ to the category of an exemplary man, even mere myth or gigantic fraud. The results of these research not helped in any way to put some light on the figure and the message of Jesus. Protestant dialectical theology, on the other hand, objected to the discomfort created by this situation and the difficulties that seemed to fall the Christology and theology in general. His response was the proclamation from the theological point of view, was absolutely irrelevant event of the historical Jesus. However, thanks to the use of sophisticated Exegetical tools, and with a critical conscience more lucid and serene, has been recovering slowly an interesting historical material that allows to overcome the skepticism of the previous period. In the mid-1960s, have returned to bloom Christological studies, both in the Catholic area and the Protestant. In the variety of currents that have arisen, there are some common methodological features, the first of which is the effort to make affordable to the modern man the person of Jesus and his message.