Biography of Jiang Jieshi o Chiang Kaichek (1887-1975)

Chinese military and politician. He/She was born in Fenghua (Chekiang province) on October 31, 1887 and died on April 5, 1975 in Taipei (Taiwan). His real name was Chiang Chung-Cheng, although it was also known as Chiang Kaichek or Chang Kai Chek. It was one of the most important figures in the history of China in the 20th century. Following the example of the father of modern China, Sun Yat Sen, tried to achieve the unification of the country. He/She was head of the Government of China from 1928 to 1949, and from March 1950 until his death, President of the Republic of China in Taiwan exile.

He was the son of a wealthy merchant of salt, who died when Jiang was only nine years old. During his childhood he/she saw as China was involved in a series of internal struggles due to the weakening of the power of the Qing dynasty. This situation was exploited by foreign powers to increase its political and economic influence in China. In the circle close to Jiang blamed the Qing dynasty and its traditionalism and the immobility of the situation it was in China. They considered that China's modernization was the only solution to achieve the expulsion of aliens and recover the old lost prestige in the country. He/She began his military training at the Chinese Military Academy of Paoting.

In 1907 he/she was sent by the imperial Government to Japan to complete his military studies at the Military Academy of Shikan Gakko. There he/she came into contact with other students of Chinese origin, who also shared his reformist ideas. Their political ideas led him to join the revolutionary group created by Sun Yat Sen, United Alliance (Tung-meng Hui), which had as its objective the overthrow of the Qing dynasty and the establishment of a Republic in China. He/She remained in the ranks of the Army Japanese between 1909 and 1911, whose Spartan ideals he/she admired. He/She returned to China in October 1911, when a revolution erupted in Wuhan. There he/she joined the rebel troops led by Chen Chi-mei, who sought the overthrow of the Qing. The revolutionary movement attained its objectives, and on January 1, 1912, the Republic of China was proclaimed by Sun Yat Sen, action in which Jiang Jieshi played a major role. However, the revolutionary leader did not have sufficient military forces allowing to carry out in a real way the unification of China.

A military commander in the North, Yuan Shih-kai, the main military leader of the country became President of the Republic. However Yuan dispensed with the political party headed by Jiang and Sun and established a military dictatorship. The two leaders of the nationalist party (Kuomintang), called a second revolution in 1913 and his men clashed with the troops of Yuan. Jiang was defeated and was forced to take refuge in Japan. In exile he/she withdrew from political life and from 1916 was introduced in the business world. In this period engaged in close relations with the Shanghai mafia, especially with the secret group called the band Green. He/She returned to China in 1918 again joining the nationalist movement headed by Sun Yat Sen, which became one of his closest collaborators.

It helped to consolidate the Government of Sun Yat Sen in Canton, to the North, where the warlords were. After the death of Yuan, China fell into a period of struggles between the different warlords. Control of the armies of the South, but the presence of powerful warlords prevented treatment get it. At the beginning of the 1920's Sun carried out a reorganization of the nationalist party, since to consolidate his power was realized that needed the help of foreign powers. He/She decided to send Jiang Jieshi to Moscow, in order to study the military methods of the Soviet army. During his stay in the capital of the USSR to Jiang attention you especially the close relationship between her army and the Communist Party.

It took advantage of its stay in Moscow to read Marx and Lenin. Adopted doctrines criticism against the imeprialimo of Lenin, accusing the Western powers of the poverty of their country. He/She returned to China at the end of 1923, where he/she was appointed director of the Academia Militar of Whampoa, which Sun had founded in the vicinity of Canton with the help of the Soviets. There was responsible for the formation of important figures of the future policy of China as Zhou Enlai and Lin Biao. In his new position he/she managed to increase his influence among the officers of the army of the Kuomintang. However his figure not inspired confidence the Soviet advisers from Sun, Michael Borodin, and B. K. Galen.

After the death of Sun Yat Sen in March 1925, Jiang with the help of the troops stationed in Whampoa became the new leader of the nationalist party, moving to the main candidate for the succession, Wang Ching-Wei. He/She achieved international fame in 1926 when it launched a successful campaign against the warlords of northern China. From its position it saw with concern as it increased the power of the Communists. In order to put an end to the boom of these it broke relations with them in 1927, expelled his Soviet advisers and introduced his army in the North of China. His initial successes enabled him to control the Yangtze River Valley.

Later, taking advantage of an uprising in Shanghai took control of the city on April 12, 1927, finishing of cruel way with hundreds of Communists and left-wing activists. This led to increase the hatred towards him of the Communists and break its relations with the left wing of the nationalist party. He/She accused the Communists of the interests of the Communist International over the China. In order to consolidate their power expelled from the nationalist party the two main leaders of the left wing, Ching-Wei Wang and Mao Zedong.

He resigned from his post in August 1927, but it regained power at the beginning of 1928. His military victories of his troops allowed him to have controlled most of China in October 1928, after the conquest of Beijing. Only they escaped their control Manchuria. It established a Republican government whose seat was in Nanking, which was named President, a post which he/she combined with the post of Chief of the Nationalist army.

In 1927 he/she married Mei-lin, who belonged to one of the leading families of the country, that narrow relations with the sectors more conservatives in the Chinese society. After the marriage, Jiang is converted to Christianity. In order to consolidate their power undertook a series of economic reforms, although it never undertook the social reforms that were requested by the majority of the population that was mired in poverty. Corruption became widespread in the Administration headed by Jiang.

Their situation was seriously injured when in 1931 the Japanese occupied Manchuria and prepared to invade northern China. However not paid attention to the Japanese and preferred to focus on the fight with the Communists, who controlled the southeastern provinces. These however began to see how increased his support among the population, since its leader, Mao Zedong, focused its objectives on the expulsion of the Japanese. In order to put an end to dissensions between the different political factions in the Government at the end of 1931 he/she resigned from the Presidency of the nationalist government, being replaced by Lin Sen. He/She returned in 1932 to deal with Communist groups. During this period he/she organized a total of five campaigns against communist positions

In order that the Chinese population adopted the Confucian values and of Puritan Protestantism, in 1934 he/she founded the political party new life movement. He/She was to give the nation a greater moral cohesion, at the same time promoted the adoption of Western hygiene standards and the application of models of Spartan discipline of the Japanese army. But this new ideology failed to compete with the radicalism of Marxist communism of Mao. In 1934 reorganized his troops and undertook the famous March to the North, in search of better positions. But the presence of Japanese troops did that you signing a truce between Mao and Chiang. Only Jiang joined in 1936 the Alliance that nationalists and Communists had formed to deal with the Japanese, since it was captured by the manchu general Zhang Xueliang.

When the Japanese invaded China in 1937 was that the Red Army carried the weight of the war, while he/she was the Commander military Chinese army. In this way it was best to keep its army, since I wanted to have the entire possible so that once the second world war could confront Mao. During the war, Jiang was considered by allies as the only valid interlocutor between rebel troops from China. His efforts were instrumental in achieving that China was recognized as a nation by the international community. From the Declaration of war from China to Italy and Germany on December 8, 1941, was part on an ongoing basis of the military Council of the allies until the end of the race.

In 1943 he/she was elected President of the provisional Government, representing China in the same year at the Cairo Conference. Their territories were attacked by the Japanese in 1944 causing more than 700,000 casualties among his men. Once defeated the Japanese army and achieved peace on August 14, 1945, he/she asked the Communists a high fire, in order to enter into discussions aimed at the unification of the country and power-sharing. In the absence of agreement after two personal interviews between the two leaders in 1946 Mao's Communists and nationalists of Jiang were involved in a bloody civil war. He/She returned to Nanking with the intention of rebuilding the country and crush the Communists.

The fighting spread over three years, in which Jiang military errors were continuous. The most serious of them was when he/she decided to lead his army to Manchuria, there far from their bases and shortage of materials suffered a major defeat at the hands of the Communists. Despite the U.S. support was forced to cede territories to its enemies. In May 1948 became the first constitutional President in the history of China. Political decisions made that his regime was decomposing little by little. He/She received the coup de grace when it decided to declare illegal a number of political movements, which meant that many members of the nationalist party began to support the Communists in 1949.

The administrative disorganization and political corruption facilitated the advancement of the Communists the Jiang regime crumbled quickly. He/She resigned on January 21, 1949, being replaced by Vice President Li Tsung-jen. He/She abandoned Nanking and was established a long time in Chikow, near Shanghai. Before the Communist advance was forced to take refuge in Taiwan, the last bastion of nationalist resistance, where with the support of the United States proclaimed on December 8, 1949 the Republic of China. From his new residence Jiang always maintained that theirs was the legitimate Chinese Government. With the support of the United States Taiwan he/she held for many years the site of China at the General Assembly of the United Nations. It has signed pacts of mutual defence with the various Presidents of the United States.

Taiwan lived during the reign of Chiang an important economic development, what particular contributed substantial economic aid from United States. Although he/she gave his regime of the institutions of a democratic system, he/she worked as the power authoritatively. In March 1950 he/she formally assumed the Presidency. Until his death expressed his intention of reconquering the Mainland. It was re-elected President in 1954, 960 and 1966. But it was gradually losing international support, and in 1972 its site at the United Nations went to be occupied by Communist China. He/She died on January 5, 1975, being succeeded by his son, Chiang Ching-kuo.