Poet Spanish, born in Moguer (Huelva) December 23, 1881, and died in Santurce (district belonging to San Juan, capital of Puerto Rico) on May 29, 1958. Author of an extensive and splendid poetic production that part of the modernist aesthetic to reach, after successive stages of constant ornamental debugging, the higher levels of spiritual depth in the wake of the so-called "pure poetry", is considered to be one of the greatest poets - if not the main - of contemporary Spanish poetry. His surly, withdrawn and individualistic, character joined the radical originality of his poetic production, turned away you from any school or generational group of those who flourished in the first half of the 20th century Spanish literature; However, critics emphasized his role as bridge or transmitter link between modernism and the generation of 27 - collective which was unanimously admitted as a guide or mentor, and, in general, their influence undeniable in most of the poets in Spanish that happened it (including many Hispanic-American authors). In 1956, two years before his death, the Swedish Academy awarded the Nobel Prize for literature, which came to recognize the high price of his poetic work, "which is an example of deep spirituality and artistic purity in the Castilian language".
Born in the bosom of a wealthy family who was devoted to the cultivation of vineyards and the production and export of wines, came into the world in the manor house located in la Ribera street number 2, in where spent the first years of his childhood until, in 1887, his family moved to another residence located on new Street (whereToday, is the seat of the museum dedicated to the poet by his home town). His childhood was sad and isolated, marked by a solitude that would then become a constant throughout his individualistic life Peripeteia ("of those years I remember who played very little, and that was a great friend of solitude"), and which, together with a permanent self-absorption that just left to extasiar in the contemplation of the countryside and the seahe forged his personality some major defects (such as its everlasting tendency toward self-centeredness) and virtues (like the subtle ability to introspection, or the refined depiction of emotions caused by the contemplation of beauty) that would do well patent in his life and in his work.
Already in full adolescence, it agreed to the degree of Bachelor's degree in the College of the Jesuits of the port of Santa María (Cádiz), where he/she began to become aware of his accused artistic vocation, aimed initially towards painting. Intending to engage in their moments of leisure to the Visual Arts, starting in the autumn of 1896, the young Juan Ramon was established in Seville, where, by laying on his father, he/she enrolled in the Faculty of law to pursue higher studies in law; However, the urgent need to unleash her burgeoning creativity led him to devote more time to reading and writing of poems - highly impressed at that time, by the work of Bécquer (1836-1870) - and, above all, painting - whose rudiments learned in the Studio of a Seville Neo-Impressionist painter-. Thus, soon abandoned law (although had to reset it several times, pressured by his father) and decided to consecrate himself fully to his artistic vocation, determination that finally found the support of his family, to which the author defined years later as "cultured, traditionalist and conservative". Merced to the enviable position of their own, during his childhood and youth was never affected by economic problems; before, it was favored by constant family financial support that allowed him to freely develop their literary work, at the time that generously covered their expenses of maintenance in Seville and Madrid, city - the latter - that decided to move in 1900 to expand their cultural horizons.
His move to Madrid corresponded to an invitation of the almerian modernist poet Francisco Villaespesa (1877-1936), who resided in the capital of the country since 1897. Villaespesa, who had read new poems of Juan Ramón Jiménez (published in literary magazines in Huelva and Seville) and the magnificent translations of Ibsen (1828-1906) had made the young poet of Moguer in their leisure time, shared with him his admiration for the modernist poetry of Rubén Darío (1867-1916); and, at the same time, he/she was honored with the friendship of the great Nicaraguan Bard, then installed in Madrid as a correspondent of the Rotary La Nación Argentina. Postcard Juan Ramón Jiménez received in Seville, which is inviting him to travel to the capital, had been signed by Villaespesa and own Rubén Dario, two names that caused his immediate transfer to Madrid, where he/she arrived on April 13, 1900. Encouraged by their mentors, unveiled his new poems in magazines of the town and Court, and there published his first two books of poetry: souls of violet (1900) - whose title was due to a suggestion made by Dario - and Lilys (1900) - inspired title, now, by Valle Inclán (1866-1936). Despite this dazzling irruption in the forums and literary Cenacle of the capital, the sullen, abstracted and melancholic Ramón Jiménez Juan was unable to adapt to the hustle and bustle of the big city, which fell victim to a severe depressive neurosis which, with various ups and downs, would accompany him throughout his life.
With the feeling of having failed in their urban adventure and discomfort by interrupted, once again, his law studies, the young poet returned to Moguer in late may 1900, until two months had elapsed since his arrival in the town and Court. His emotional stability - of yours so fragile that it had promoted him, even to visit some optional during your stay in Madrid - suffered a terrible blow at the beginning of the summer of that year, when on July 3 he/she died, suddenly, his father. Dam of a serious depression aggravated by coronary problems, in the spring of 1901 resorted again to the family fortune to pay for psychiatric treatment in the Hospital of mentally ill of Castell d'Andorte (in Le Bouscat, Bordeaux), where spent consulting a famous specialist in mental health, Dr. Lalanne. Was very helpful this visit to France of the weak and unstable Juan Ramón Jiménez, both in regard to their love life and in regard to his literary work: apparently, though not waged never derived concern of becoming sick, joyfully discovered his amorous mood and starred in several love affairs which were well reflected in his verses; and, on the other hand, took advantage of his stay in Gallic territory to read with enjoyment of the previous century French poetry (especially that of the Parnassian authors and symbolists (see parnasianismo and symbolism), who already knew in part by having served germ that modernist aesthetic that so attracted him). Fruit of these helpful readings and those first erotic experiences needed to capture in his verses was his third volume of poems, published in Madrid titled openly becqueriano rhymes (1902).
He had, in fact, returned to the Spanish capital at the end of 1901, but not to return to deal with that urban bustle that both had troubled him during his first visit to the town and Court, but for withdrawing voluntarily at the clinica del Rosario - specializing in treatments Neuropathological-, he/she lived until 1903, with freedom to establish new friendshipsalmost all them linked to the literary scene. Among them was Dr. Simarro, who led for the first time to the Institución Libre de Enseñanza, where his book rhymes - as it was the case in all the cultural gossip from Madrid - had been very well received. Consecrated, in the end, as one of the great revelations of the Spanish at the beginning of 20th century poetry, left patent its evolution since the becqueriano post-romanticism and Parnassian modernism to symbolism in his poetic fourth installment, published under the title of Arias tristes (1903), and unanimously considered by critics and readers as his first work teacher.
In its privileged residence ("Sanatorium of Rosary, white and blue, sisters of charity well ranked. In this atmosphere of convent and Garden have spent two of the best years of my life"), Juan Ramón Jiménez organized frequent literary gatherings attended by, among other figures of Hispanic literature of the time, the brothers Manuel (1874-1947) and Antonio Machado (1875-1939), the playwright Jacinto Benavente (1866-1954) and the aforementioned Ramón María del Valle Inclán. After leaving the mental clinic, supposedly revived, lived for another two years in different places of Madrid (among them, the home of the mentioned doctor Simarro) until a new psychic crisis advised him to return to his hometown, where, more withdrawn and melancholy that it ever, engaged in the drafting of which was called into one of the masterpieces of world literature: the volume in prose Platero and I (written to 1906, but unpublished until 1914), book that accused Juan Ramón Jiménez lyrical sensitivity makes available to readers of all ages.
Meanwhile, it continued growing fruitful continuity in poetic creation, which he/she felt inextricably linked as if it were a predestination ("my life is all poetry. I'm not a writer, I'm a poet who realized the dream of his life. For me there is more than beauty"), and by sending his compositions to some of the major literary publications in the country, such as the Prometheus magazine, founded by one of the big fans of his work, the polygraph madrileño Ramón Gómez de la Serna (1888-1963). At the behest of this he/she returned to Madrid in 1911, when the deepening of their constant depression, coupled with the progressive economic decline of his family, advise a new change of scenery. But to settle in the town and Court began to move away from the aesthetic concepts of Gómez de la Serna (who described as mere "games" avant-garde), at the time that was attracted by the atmosphere and the dominant ideas in the Residencia de Estudiantes, where he/she stayed from 1913. In that year he/she met also the young and cultured writer Barcelona Zenobia Camprubí (1887-1956), which fell in love head over heels to the point of becoming to swear him - at the initial rejection of the young-that all the loved ones that had referred in his earlier poetry were his poetic invention, and that he/she was the only woman who had loved in her life.
Inspired by this impetuous passion, Juan Ramon wrote and published summer (1915), a beautiful love poems ("will fall off your heart unspotted / in my messy feeling, / and, what immense morning Moon, / my Gold will sink do not wear pink, / still there, my naked breast") which, together with the tenacious insistence of the poet, eventually overcome the resistance of Zenobia. Concluded, in order, the marriage, the couple he/she traveled to the United States in 1916 to celebrate your wedding in the Catholic Church of St. Stephen, of New York, where the poet promised his beloved the most beautiful love poems that had ever been written. Absorbed by the writing of this book, that would come to light under the beautiful title of journal of a poet reciencasado (1916), perhaps, or the author himself warned that a new topic broke with unusual vigor in his poetry, far exceed, in extension and reach, loving what had been offered to Zenobia as irrefutable testimony to his passion. The long transatlantic journey of return brought him, indeed, the "discovery" of the sea as a source of undeniable beauty and emotion poetic, and absorbed contemplation of the vast ocean - living reminiscent of that Huelva of his childhood - sea emerged his immediate approach to the "pure poetry", that expression sober and refined of poetic language, understood as a code now markedly intellectualwhich can be accessed before by the thought that by the emotions.
Opened, as well, a second stage in the literary of Juan Ramón Jiménez path, born not only - obviously - that contemplation dreamlike sea, but also the knowledge acquired during your wedding about the Anglo-Saxon poetry, and the discovery of the work of the great Indian poet Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941), whose verses had been translated into Spanish by the own Zenobia (concerningIt is not idle to point that the wife of the poet decisively influenced not only in his love life, but also in the rest of its facets, including the creative and intellectual).
Back in Spain, Zenobia and Juan Ramón continued traveling through the South of the country (Sevilla, Moguer...) and returned to visit the United States (Caldwell, Boston...), to end up returning to the Iberian Peninsula, where he/she set up residence in Madrid. The Andalusian poet was already, at the time, one of the leading figures of contemporary Spanish poetry, position that definitely consolidated with another great poems, eternities (1918), one of the works which have exerted greater influence on Spanish poetry of the 20th century. Immersed in a febrile creative activity, Juan Ramón Jiménez had become the best and most admired Entertainer of letters of his time: encouraged or it ruined the new literary movements that flourished everywhere, he/she intervened in the Foundation of cultural magazines (in many of which gave her new poems), supported the young poets who were looking for a point of reference (including in his teaching(, the lost boys who soon would be included under the label of "Generación del 27"), advised and prologaba the edition of several works by first-time authors, and, simultaneously, it continued producing an amazing poetry that was being printed in some volumes as celebrated by the critics and readers as stone and sky (1919), second poetic antolojia. 1898-1918 (1922), poems (1923) and beauty (1923).
Aware of this role, from 1925 began publishing their papers - which were leaving, with irregular periodicity, to 1935, in which, in addition to numerous original poems, had been copying some of the letters that made up its rich correspondence with other characters of the Spanish culture. But the most interesting thing about these notebooks were annotations that Moguer poet had been taking about other contemporary writers, who used to judge with disdain and superiority, and criticism with comments very malicious. It is not surprising that, gradually, this Cavalier and distrustful attitude was configuring you a profile of smug and divinized figure that helped accentuate your loneliness; or who were giving back - not dare to deny, of course, the high quality of his work poetry - almost all writers, artists and intellectuals who, long ago, had enjoyed his confidence, including the young poets of the generation of 27, with those who argued heatedly for two reasons that show well clearly the roughness of the character of Juan Ramon: on the one hand, refused in resounding to participate in this tribute to Góngora (1561-1627), held in the Ateneo de Sevilla in 1927, would then pass to the history of Spanish literature as the generational event that brought together them; and, on the other hand, he/she was very offended because one of his poems had appeared in a publication edited by these young people, under a poem by Unamuno (1864-1936). From the contempt and the cruelty that characterized him, Juan Ramón Jiménez, in a conversation with José Bergamín (1895-1983), arrived to brand the poets of 27 of "mariconcillos Beach", alluding to the sexual preferences of some of them; but these unwarranted ad hominem attacks were not the direct trigger for the estrangement that, at the end of the Decade of the 1920s and beginning of the next, occurred between the authors of the 27 and his first guide or mentor. In reality, the progression of the respective poetic of people who had been honored to Góngora was oriented towards a poetry human, quite opposite to the "pure poetry" juanramoniana, which by that time had in Spain to a prominent champion, the Chilean poet Pablo Neruda (1904-1973), who went on to become the new benchmark of such collective generational - and, therefore, in the merciless of Juan Ramon attacked, which he/she defined to Chile as a "big bad poet", imitating mock his peculiar style. Luis Cernuda (1902-1963) - Seville probably one of those "mariconcillos Beach" that sought to bully Juan - Ramon, recalled at the same time the initial generosity and last rancor of Moguer poet, and defined it as "A Dr. Jeckill and Mr. Hyde"; but not all his fellow artistic career were so even-handed: the painter Salvador Dalí (1904-1989) and the filmmaker Luis Buñuel (1900-1903) sent you a telegram which was a real slap in the face for a man so paid himself as Juan Ramon ("amicably. You congratulations on your Platero and I. The donkey is more donkey all donkeys we have known"). For its part, the new mentor of the collective also stayed behind: honored by the already established poets of 27 with the position of director of its new magazine (green horse for poetry), Neruda stamped his famous manifesto of impure poetry, a front and ruthless attack on the juanramoniana aesthetics in the pages of this publication.
Aside from these fierce polemics - so prevalent in forums and literary Cenacle Spanish, other major misfortunes increased depressive sadness of Moguer poet. In 1928 his mother had died, and still not had recovered well from the despair which caused you this irreparable loss when, in 1931, began to show the first signs of cancerous tumor that would end the life of Zenobia. Despite these adversities, Juan Ramón Jiménez remained engaged in poetic writing, already perched on a high and lonely pedestal from which were allowed to reject, in 1935, the invitation of the Academy that occupy a vacancy in the House Docta. Shortly afterwards, following the outbreak of the Civil War, embraced the Republican cause and, in a gesture Philanthropic stranger, hosted at home several orphans, to whose attention allocated a high portion of his property when, in August 1936, left Spain to take possession of his new position as cultural attaché at the Embassy in Washington.
From then on, began a long journey of Juan Ramon and Zenobia by different parts of the American continent, where the poet had reached both prestigious literary as in Spain. After having given a series of lectures at the University of Miami (Florida), he/she went to Cuba and lived for a time in Havana, surrounded by the affection and admiration of all the Antilles poets. In 1939, the marriage of writers settled in New York, the city that had both joined them, and at the end of that same year settled in Coral Gables (Miami), town finished giving title to a new collection of poems by Juan Ramon (Romances of Coral Gables, 1948). Two years before the appearance of this book, coinciding with the publication of another great poems of the Andalusian writer (total station, 1946), Juan Ramón Jiménez had suffered another violent depressive crisis that had forced him to be admitted to a Health Center for eight months. But, despite these constant relapses and progressive physical deterioration of Zenobia, continued to travel tirelessly throughout the Americas, corresponding to the affection showing him in numerous academic ceremonies and tributes (such as which put him the Uruguayan Senate in 1948). Finally, both writers set their residence in Puerto Rico in 1950, and a year later Zenobia Camprubí had to undergo surgery to be operated from a cancerous condition that had damaged her matrix.
The poet, meanwhile, had remained firmly linked to that lyric destination - now crossed by mystical exaltation - which had been manifested since his early youth, embodied by the end of the forties in a poetry book where their deep spiritual concerns - oriented, in this last stage of his life, an immanent and pantheistic religiosity - reached a hardly surmountable lyrical intensity. It is Animal's background (1949), work that Juan Ramón Jiménez - constantly haunted by the revision and correction of his poetry-reissued in the course of that same year under the title of the desired God and deseante (1949), name of the novel and second part of the collection of poems.
In 1954 further worsened the State of health of Zenobia, with the consequent desperation of Juan Ramon, whose psychic fragility was unable to overcome this torment. Plunged into a deep depression on October 25, 1956 he/she received a call from the Swedish Academy, which announced the award of the Nobel Prize, honor, where his plight, did not bring him any comfort to you. Three days later died Zenobia Camprubí at the Mimiya clinic, sita in the sanjuanero district of Santurce, the same hospital where, after half year, the poet, who had spent all her troubled widowhood held in his house, dam of bitterness and pain was killed. On June 6, 1958, Francisco Hernández-Pinzón, nephew of the poet, is taking charge of the transfer of the mortal remains of his uncles, which, in accordance with the last will of the poet, received burial in the cemetery of Jesus, Moguer, in the midst of large samples of mourning and senses posthumous tributes.
It is certainly complex, in a brief bio-literature review of this nature, condense the entire scope of the vast juanramoniana production, always in a constant process of revision - poet lived exclusively for his work, and liked to talk about his poetry as a unit permanently linked to their own life journey - and, on several occasions, global consolidated in new books of poetry. The following is a payroll - more in-depth possible - volumes which, in life, gave to the printing press, listed in chronological order according to their date of publication (which does not match necessarily of wording, as already indicated above when speaking of Platero and I).
-Souls of violet (Madrid: modern typography, 1900)-Lilys (Madrid: modern typography, 1900)-rhymes (1900-1902) (Madrid: Librería de Fernando Fe, 1902)-sad Arias (Madrid: Librería de Fernando Fe, 1903)-distant gardens (Madrid: Librería de Fernando Fe, 1904)-Elegies i. pure Elegies (Madrid: typography of the magazine's archives, 1908)-Elegies II. Intermediate Elegies (Madrid: typography of the magazine's archives, 1909)-Olvidanzas, I. The Greens (Madrid: typography of the magazine's archives, 1909)-Elegies III. Sad Elegies (Madrid: typography of the magazine's files, 1910).-ballads of spring (Madrid: typography of the magazine's files, 1910).-solitude audible (Madrid: typography of the magazine's archives, 1911)-pastoral (Madrid: Prieto and Cia editors, 1911).-poems magical and mourners (Madrid: typography of the magazine's archives, 1909)-melancholy (Madrid: typography of the magazine's archives, 1912).-labyrinth (Madrid(: Ed. Renaissance, 1913)-Platero and I [minor edit] (Madrid: Ed.) Reading, 1914)-summer (Madrid: Calleja, 1916)-Platero and I [1st complete ed.] (Madrid: Calleja, 1917)-spiritual sonnets (Madrid: Calleja, 1917)-diary of a poet reciencasado (Madrid: Calleja, 1917)-poems chosen (New York: The Hispanic Society of America, 1917)-eternities (Madrid: Tip. lit.) A. Angell Alcoy, 1918).-stone and sky (Madrid: printing Fortanet, 1919).-second poetic antolojia (Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, 1922).-poems by J.R.J. (Mexico: Ed. Mexico modern., 1923)-poetry (in verse) (Madrid: printing workshops, 1923).-beauty (in verse) (Madrid: printing workshops, 1923).-poetry in prose and verse (Madrid: Ed. sign, 1932)-song (Madrid: Ed. sign., 1935)-verse and prose for children (Puerto Rico1937)-Spaniards of three worlds (Buenos Aires: Ed. Losada, 1942)-Voces de mi copla (Mexico: Ed. Stylo, 1945)-the Zaratan (Mexico, 1946)-total station with songs from the new light (Buenos Aires: Ed. Losada, 1946)-Romances of Coral Gables (Mexico: Ed. Stylo.) Mexico, 1948)-Fund Animal (Buenos Aires: Ed. Pleamar, 1949)-desired and desiring God (Madrid: Aguilar, 1964)-Antolojia for children and adolescents (Buenos Aires: Ed. Losada, 1951)-third poetic antolojia (Madrid: new library Ed., 1957)-poetry books (Madrid: Ed. Aguilar, 1957).-best J.R.J. verses (Buenos Aires: Ed. Ntra.) America, 1957)-Web chosen (Madrid: Ed. Gredos, 1958)-Moguer (Valencia: Ed. of the General direction of archives and libraries, 1958).
Since the death of the poet to the present day have appeared numerous editions which collected their prose and poems already printed, rescue other juanramonianos writings scattered newspapers and magazines, or recover many of the unpublished texts found among the papers of the Andalusian author. Among them, mention the titled first books of poetry (Madrid: Ed. Aguilar, 1959), Olvidos de Granada (San Juan de Puerto Rico: Ed.) Tower, 1960), JRJ notebooks (Madrid: Ed. Taurus, 1960), infinite power (Madrid: Aguilar, 1961), by the yellow Crystal (Madrid: Aguilar, 1961), working gustoso (Mexico: Aguilar, 1961), first prose (Madrid: Aguilar, 1962), letters [first selection] (Madrid: Aguilar, 1962), modernism, a course notes (Mexico: Ed. Aguilar, 1962), three hundred poems (Barcelona: Plaza & Janés, 1963), Seville (Seville: S. Antonio IMP.)1963), poems revived at the time of Moguer (Barcelona: Ed. Vergara, 1963), the Poplar Hill (Barcelona: Ed. Vergara, 1963), unpublished books of poetry (Madrid: Ed. Aguilar, 1964), lyrical portraits (Madrid: Aguilar, 1965), aesthetics and aesthetic ethics (Madrid: Aguilar, 1967), unpublished books of poetry, 2 (Madrid: Aguilar, 1967), the new sea (Madrid: Ed. art and bibliophile, 1973), with the carbon of the Sol (Madrid(: Ed. teaching Spanish, 1973), new antolojia (Barcelona: Ed. Peninsula, 1973), selection of letters (Barcelona: Ed. Picazo, 1973), the altitude of its orbit (Madrid: Ed. teaching Spanish, 1974), on the other side (Madrid: Ed. Júcar, 1974), Ríos will be (Santander: Ed. Bedia, 1974), parallel critique (Barcelona: Narcea, S.A. de Ediciones, 1975), literary letters (Barcelona: Ed. Bruguera, 1977), legend (Madrid: Cupsas Ed.)1978), stories and Tales (Barcelona: Ed. Bruguera, 1979), Andalusian Elejias (Barcelona: Ed. Bruguera, 1980), autobiography and poetic Arts (Madrid: the books of Faust, 1981), that village fire (Cádiz, 1981), singing bird far (Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, 1981), critical Proses (Madrid: Taurus, 1981), island of sympathy (San Juan of Puerto Rico: Hurricane Ed., 1981), brief Antolojia (Madrid: white Ed., 1981), general Antolojia in prose (Madrid(: Ed. Biblioteca Nueva, 1981), ballads of love (Madrid, 1981), songs (Cordoba: Ed. Demófilo, 1981), 35 poems of the Sea (Madrid: Ed. Rialp, 1981), last poems chosen (Madrid: Espasa Calpe, 1982) and poetic politics (Madrid: Alianza Editorial, 1982).
Significant aesthetic and thematic evolution experienced by the extensive literary career of Juan Ramón Jiménez has allowed critics to distinguish his work, while respecting this unitary conception with the poet himself saw it, various periods or stages well differentiated together. In this regard, scholars of the juanramoniana work have been starting from wise periodization that the Andalusian author himself proposed in his book Animal background (1949), where said that his poetic work, without ever losing the continuity which made sense unit to all his work, had gone through three different periods: a sensitive, another intellectual, and another second season that the author left without qualifyingliterary criticism - following the proposal of Aurora de Albornoz - called that "enough" or "true".
[Fragment of departure: purity of the sea, extracted from "The file of word" from the center of historical studies, edited by the students residence].
In their first poetic raids, Juan Ramón Jiménez left well patent the influence direct Becquer (which took the sentimentality and expository clarity as cornerstones of his literary language) and, simultaneously, of modernism, with a special predilection for the works of the universal master of this movement, the Nicaraguan Rubén Dario: "Nightingale of the night, what made lucero trino, / what made pink harmony in your throat singing?" / The Moon bird, what divine Prado / is the source of gold that takes in your throat? Is the satin of the sky that wraps the URN / your blue, trembling and fine jewelry? "/ Crying in your chest a God, or to what ancient night / spring has stolen your waters with Star?" (of Elegies pure, 1908). But there is also a clear imprint of the French Symbolist - with Verlaine (1844-1896) to the head-, other Gallic authors who had avidly read during his internment at the sanatorium of Bordeaux - as the romantic Víctor Hugo (1802-1885)-, and several Spanish as Villaespesa and Valle Inclán modernists in their new verses. Despite these sensitive influences, can be seen already from his early poems a voice firm, emphatic and thoroughly original, capable of enunciating emotions and express feelings as beautiful as the reflected on "Ballad of the poet on horseback", one of his most memorable compositions of this period: "what tranquillity violet! / To the path, to the evening, / riding goes the poet... / what violet tranquility! The sweet breeze from the River, / fragrant Reed and water / cool le Manor, / the sweet breeze from the river... / / horse is the poet, / what violet tranquility! And the heart lost you, / suffering and embalmed, / in green Honeysuckle..., / and the heart is lost... / / horse goes the poet... / what violet tranquility! "Mall is golden... / the last thought / Sun, makes dream and I cry... / mall is golden" (from ballads of spring, 1907).
As it is easily deduced from the reading of these verses, the poetic universe of the first juanramoniana time is wrought by vague amorous reveries, romantic effusions derived from contemplation of the landscape, echoes of delicate musicality and bittersweet melancholy feelings. But solitude, so close to the poet from his childhood, also leads sometimes to bleak premonition, as in "The final journey", another of his universally known poems: "... And I, I will go. And they will be the birds singing; / and you'll be my garden, with its green tree / and with its White well. Every afternoon, the sky will be blue and placid; / and they will play, as this evening is played, / the bells of the Bell Tower. Those who loved me; will die / and the village will be new each year; "/ and in the corner that my garden flowering and whitewashed, / errará my spirit, nostaljico... / / and I I'll go: and I'll be alone, homeless, without tree / green, not white well, / without sky blue and Placid... / and birds singing will be" (of wild poems, 1911). The theme of death, indeed, next to the love and the loneliness, leaves an indelible imprint on this first time of juanramoniana poetry.
The relationship with Zenobia Camprubí - daughter of hindu and exceptional mother aware of English literature - Juan Ramón approached what he/she called "the" nortes "lyric", i.e., the poetry of some English-speaking authors like Irish Yeats (1865-1939), Hopkins (1844-1889) English and American Whitman (1819-1892). He/She reneged, step by step, French symbolism (while, in the opinion of specialists in his work, was the largest Spanish Symbolist all-time), and also "the robes of modernism" - always rejected according to its juicy expressions-to move towards a much more sober and stark, poetry in which the removal of ornamental elements allowed to glimpse of naked beauty and transcendent purity. Already noted in paragraphs above the importance of the sea and its contemplation in diary of a poet reciencasado (1916), work that opened this second era of the juanramoniana creative path and which was reprinted many years later by the author, under the new and eloquent title of journal of poet and sea; but the sea is not now - as it was the landscape in its earlier stage - a mere pretext for the aesthetic delectation or the embodiment of feelings, but a symbolic bridge whose beauty, purity and magnitude contacted the poet with the eternally beautiful and transcendent. And this longing for transcendence - the theme of the juanramoniana poetry of this time - can only be achieved by eliminating the romantic, Symbolist and modernist residues remaining in his verses, and giving voice to the sober and precise rigor of the intellectual Act: "Intelijencia, da me / things precise name!" / Than my word / the same thing, / created by my soul again. / That I go all / those who do not know them, things; / that I go all / those who already forgotten them, things; "/ that I go all / those who love them, to things... / Intelijencia, Dame / the name, precise, and yours, / and yours and mine, things!" (of eternities, 1917).
After a long poetic silence - which did not review and obsessively polished his previous poems-, Juan Ramón Jiménez Romances of Coral Gables (1948), published work in which, together with the dominant theme in the previous period - communion with nature in search of the absolute-, are other novel arguments in the juanramoniana work - as the longing for his native Moguermotivated by long exile-. A thorough review of his life and his previous work configures the poema-libro space (published in 1954, but written in 1941 after having left the hospital in Miami where he/she believed not to leave never the deep depression that kept him entered eight months), an extensive and hallucinating impulsive and chaotic creation exercise (close to the automatic writing of the surrealists)in which the poet ranges between the fullness of mystical ecstasy and the depths of anguish and desolation. But it triumphs, the dessert, the pantheistic mysticism in background (1949) Animal poems then, as the first part, joined the latest masterpiece that Juan Ramon published in life, God desired and deseante (1957). Lyrical thought the poet through the intelligence makes that has come the consciousness, and consciousness is only a manifestation of the essence of the Supreme being, so that the poet feels mystically identified with God through the poetic Word. The "desired and desiring God" of Juan Ramón is an immanent God, a God who dwells in the bowels of the poet, and with whom you can communicate merging into a same consciousness, as in the famous poem entitled "transparency, God, the transparency": "God of come, you feel in my hands, / here I am entangled with me, in beautiful fight / love", the same / the fire with air. You're not my Redeemer, nor are my example, / my father, my son or my brother; / you are equal and one, you're different and everything; "/ you're beautiful thing God got, / my awareness of how beautiful [...]" (from Animal Fund, 1949).
The heir of the property of the poet, Carmen Hernández-Pinzón, was responsible for the publication, in June 2006; a book that brings together eighty six unpublished poems, photographs and texts, and that is the legacy of an unfinished project that Juan Ramón Jiménez began in 1902 and was dispersed and largely unpublished, dedicated to his mother, his brother and his friends.
ALBORNOZ, Aurora [et al]. Juan Ramón Jiménez (Madrid: Taurus Ediciones, 1988).
FRIEND FERNÁNDEZ DE ARROYABE, María Luisa. Poetry and philosophy of Juan Ramón Jiménez (Bilbao: Universidad de Deusto, Servicio de Publicaciones, 1987).
AZAM, Gilbert. The work of Juan Ramón Jiménez (Madrid: Editora Nacional, 1982).
BLASCO and Javier GOMEZ TRUEBA, Teresa. Juan Ramón Jiménez, the prose of a poet: catalogue and description of the juanramoniana lyric prose (Valladolid: Grammalea, 1994).
BOUSOÑO, Carlos. Sense of the evolution of contemporary poetry in Juan Ramón Jiménez (Madrid: Real Academia Española, 1980).
CAMPOAMOR GONZÁLEZ, Antonio. Life and poetry of Juan Ramón Jiménez (Madrid: Ed. Sedmay, 1976).
CAMPRUBÍ AYMAR, Zenobia. Live with Juan Ramon (Madrid: Fausto books, 1985).
DAVID-booming, José. From the literary to the poetic in Juan Ramón Jiménez (Murcia: Universidad de Murcia, publications service, 1988).
GARFIAS, Francisco. Juan Ramon in his Kingdom (Huelva: Diputación Provincial, 1995).
GICOVATE, Bernardo. The poetry of Juan Ramón Jiménez (Barcelona: Ed. Ariel, 1973).
REDONDO Gomez, Fernando. Juan Ramón Jiménez: A poetic theory (Alcalá de Henares [Madrid]: University of Alcalá de Henares, Servicio de Publicaciones, 1996).
GULLÓN, Ricardo. Conversations with Juan Ramon (Madrid: Taurus, 1958).
GULLÓN, Ricardo. The latest Juan Ramon (Madrid: Alfaguara, 1968).
Julia, Mercedes. The universe of Juan Ramon: A study of space poem (Madrid: Ediciones de la Torre, 1989).
LÓPEZ MARTÍNEZ, María Isabel. Folk poetry in the work of Juan Ramón Jiménez (Seville: Diputación Provincial, service publications, 1992).
Elm ITURRIARTE, Almudena de the. Total station of Juan Ramón Jiménez (Palma de Mallorca: University of the Balearic Islands, service publications, 1994).
PABLOS, Basilio. The time in the poetry of Juan Ramón Jiménez (Madrid: Gredos, 1965).
PALAU NEMES, Graciela. Beginnings of Zenobia and Juan Ramón Jiménez in America (Madrid: Fundación Universitaria Española, 1982).
PALAU NEMES, Graciela. Life and work of Juan Ramón Jiménez (Madrid: Gredos, 1974) [2 vols.].
Paradise loyal, Isabel. Juan Ramón Jiménez. Personal experience and Word (Madrid: Alhambra Longman, 1976).
SÁNCHEZ BARBUDO, Antonio. The poetic work of Juan Ramón Jiménez (Madrid: Ed. Cátedra, 1981).
URBINA, Pedro Antonio. Modernist attitude of Juan Ramón Jiménez (Barañáin [Navarra]: Eunsa [editions of the University of Navarra, S.A.], 1994).