Biography of Mohamed Ali Jinnah (1876-1948)

Jinnah, Muhammad Ali.

Important man of State linked to the process of Indian independence from the British Empire and the creation of the State of Pakistan. He/She was born in Bombay in 1876 and died in Karachi in 1948. He/She studied in his hometown and in England, where he/she obtained the title of lawyer. He/She was a member of the High Court of Bombay in 1906 and the Imperial Legislative Council in 1910. He/She joined and led the Muslim League, founded in 1906 in Dhaka, to counter the power of the Indian National Congress and defend the interests of the minority Muslim community compared to the rest of the mostly non-Islamic population.

He organized several meetings between the Congress Party and the Muslim League, taking this a harsh campaign of confrontation to the Government of the Raj. Muhammad Ali Jinnah was one of the most prominent members movement Khilafat, launched in 1919 against the resolutions of the Treaty of Sèvres, in support of the sultan of Turkey, the spiritual leader of all believers, so this could keep his title of Caliph (Khalifa). Together with his brother, Shaukat Ali, supported the campaigns of civil disobedience promulgated by Mahatma Gandhi against the policy of the colonial Government, despite not agree totally on roads that had to follow to achieve independence of the 1928 India.in published fourteen constitutional guarantees demanded for Indian Muslims. In 1936 the Congress party got a majority in the election, and the Muslim League suspected that the Government would be dominated by Hindus, so Jinnah proposed the creation of an independent Muslim State in Muslim-majority areas. This provoked a violent hostility between Muslims and Hindus. His thesis eventually succeeding because it resulted in the birth of the Union of India and Pakistan, which also included Bangla Desh until 1971. In 1947, Jinnah presided over the provisional Government of the new independent State of Pakistan and received the name of Qaid-i-Azam ('devout Muslim'). After the proclamation of independence, did the killings in Punjab, and almost all the hindu population was forced to leave Pakistan.

Bibliography

SMITH, V.A. The Oxford history of India. London, Oxford University Press, 1961.

EMBREE, A.T. and WILHELM, F. India. History of the subcontinent from the cultures of the Indus to the beginning of British rule. Madrid, Siglo XXI, 1987.

KULKE, H. & ROTHERMUND, D. A History of India, Calcutta, Rupa.1991.