Biography of Pierre Jean Jouve (1887-1976)

Poet, Narrator and French essayist, born in Arras in 1887 and died in Paris in 1976. Author of a brilliant poetic production which, on the basis of a dualistic conception of existence marked by the tension between good and evil, tries to delve into the mysteries of the divine through the most tortuous roads of the subconscious (the erotic, mystical aspiration, the tormented search for the meaning of life, etc.), is considered to be one of the most original and influential contemporary French poetry. It also stood out for his on defense of peace and its angry condemnation of violent impulses.

Born in a bourgeois family, he/she had a sad and lonely, childhood marked by a health so fragile that it prevented him from pursuing higher studies. Only the music, discovered with joy in their juvenile years and present in his work throughout his life, allowed him to find an area of refuge and solace. During his long periods of convalescence, he/she had opportunity to read some great masters of nineteenth-century French poetry, as Baudelaire (1821-1867) and Mallarmé (1842-1898), whose works aroused her literary vocation and inspired him with his first compositions characterized by a marked influence of symbolism, poetic.

Based in Paris at the beginning of the 20th century, Pierre-Jean Jouve came into contact with the writers of the group "Abbaye de Créteil" ("Créteil Abbey"), in which the physician and writer George Duhamel (1884-1966), poet, Narrator and dramatist included Jules Romains (1885-1972) and, among other young authors of the time, Vildrac and arches; This relevant existing, literary Cenacle between 1906 and 1908, postulated the need to seek, through literary channels, a spiritual communion with the immediate reality surrounding the writer. Fully integrated, as in intellectual and artistic circles at the beginning of the century Paris, Jouve in 1907 founded the literary magazine Bandeaux d'Or, which took from its date of Foundation until 1910. Significantly influenced, by that time, by the unanimism of the aforementioned Romains (doctrine which asserts the existence of a kind of collective soul in any grouping of individuals), published his first collection of poems under the title of Presence (presence, 1912). Shortly afterwards, after the outbreak of the first world war and the emergence of the first literary manifestations of pacifism - as the famous article "above the passions" (1914), de Romain Rolland (1866-1944), who also left a deep mark on the work and the thought of Jouve, Arras poet filled with anti-war echoes his other poems as Vous êtes des hommes (men are1915) and Danse des morts (dance of the dead, 1917).

At the beginning of the Decade of the 1920s, plunged into a serious crisis, psychic and intellectual, Pierre-Jean Jouve reneged of his previous work and argued for the need to "find a religious perspective on the poetic Act". He/She had known that then to the psychoanalyst Blanche Reverchon, which contracted marriage after having divorced his first wife. The revelation of the immense creative possibilities of the subconscious - suggested by Blanche, the school of psychoanalysis and the avant-garde aesthetic that, by that time, was in full boom - joined, in his case, the birth of a deep mystical fervor that led him, already on the verge of the forty years of age, to embrace the Catholic doctrine; both influences (the psychoanalysis and the Catholic mysticism) were well patent in his poetry collection titled Prière (prayer, 1924).

A year later, he/she made his first foray in the narrative genre by Paulina 1880 (1925), an excellent novel featuring a young woman who is torn between his religious faith and the tyranny of carnal desire. The good reception given by critics and readers to this his first novel encouraged continue to cultivate the prose of fiction, genre that brought new titles as it monde Le Désert (the desert world, 1927) - where he/she recounts the fascination of a character before the discovery of poetry-, Hecate (1938) and Vagadu (1931) - both inspired by his contacts with psychoanalysis - e Histoires sanglantes (bleeding stories1932).

After this fertile stage as Narrator at the beginning of the 1930s Jouve returned to the cultivation of poetry with Les noces (the wedding, 1931), a new manifestation of the lyric vein that had found in its rich spiritual life. Along the same lines, it should be locate other subsequent poems as Sueur de sang (sweat of blood, 1935), matière celeste (celestial matter, 1937), Kyrie (1938) and Gloire (glory, 1942), which followed one of his best-known collections of poems, La vierge de Paris (the Virgin of Paris, 1947), in which all its mystic and visionary breath was put at the service of the cause defended by the resistance. In General, in all his poetic production - always oscillating between love and Sin, eroticism and death - is a singular highlight the presence of the female figure, high occasionally to the category of myth. In addition to the aforementioned Blanche Reverchon, other women were crucial in the life and work of Jouve, including Lisbe, which maintained two love affairs, separated by a period of twenty-four years. The rest of his poetic work, continuously sustained by his hectic life inside and aimed to highlight the spiritual dimension of what surrounds the poet, includes other titles such as DIAdem (headband, 1949), Lyrique (lyric, 1956), melodrama (Melodrama, 1957), Inventions (inventions, 1959), Moires (1962) - an emotional look retrospective to his childhood - and Quartet (darkness, 1965).

Pirre-Jean Jouve was the author also of some trials in which left patent his extraordinary sensitivity to critically and creatively, as well as his remarkable knowledge of art, music and literature. In this facet of essayist, reached a well-deserved intellectual prestige for some works such as Le Don Juan de Mozart (1942), défense et illustration (1943) and Tombeau de Baudelaire (1958).