Biography of Juan Carlos I. King of España (1938-VVVV)

Don Juan Carlos I, King of Spain.

King of Spain. Son of Don Juan de Borbón and grandson of Alfonso XIII, the last monarch who reigned until the proclamation of the second Republic in 1931.

Head and sovereign of the illustrious order of the Golden Fleece, Chief and Grand Master of the Royal order of Carlos III and the Royal order of Queen María Luisa. His title is King of Spain, and could use all that apply to the Crown. These titles are: King of Castile, Leon, Aragon, of the two Sicilies, Jerusalem, Navarre, Granada, Toledo, of Valencia, of Galicia, Sardinia, Cordoba, of Corsica, Murcia, Jaen, of the Algarves, of Algeciras, Gibraltar, Canary Islands, Eastern and Western Indies, Islands and the ocean sea firm lands; Archduke of Austria; Duke of Burgundy, of Brabant, of Milan; Count: Habsburg, of Flanders, of Tyrol, of Roussillon, in Barcelona; Lord of Biscay and of Molina; In addition to the expired and lifetime titles that reversed in the Crown. At the death of his grandfather, in 1941, he/she was Prince of Asturias, Gerona and Duke of Montblanch; by the law of the Francoist regime, Prince of Spain, heir to the Crown, with treatment of Royal Highness and successor as head of the Spanish State. He/She is Knight of the order of the Golden Fleece, from 1941, San Javier, of the Anunciada, since 1978, bailiff Grand Cross of Justice with Collar of the order of Constantine and Jorge of Greece, since 1961, bailiff Grand Cross of honour and devotion of the sovereign order military of Malta, of the lion of gold of the House of Nassau, since 1980, great Collar of the Queen of Sheba, Grand Cordon of the order Supreme of the Chrysanthemum of Japan, since 1972, Grand necklace of the dynasty of Reza of Iran, since 1969, Grand Cross of the Legion of honour and the national order of merit, etc.

He was born in Rome on January 5, 1938, and studied in Switzerland until 1948, year in which his father and General Franco decided to it to become educated in Spain. Between 1955 and 1959 followed studies in the armies and Navy. Later he/she continued his education at the University of Madrid for two years, studying at the Faculty of philosophy and letters, law, and political science and economics. In 1962 he/she married in Athens the Princess Sofia of Greece, who became mother of the infantas Elena María Isabel Dominica de Silos and Cristina Federica Victoria and Prince Felipe Juan Pablo Alfonso de la Santísima Trinidad and all the saints of Bourbon and Greece.

In 1969 Franco appointed him successor to the head of State, his successor to the title of King, but until five years later, Franco not delegated powers to Prince Juan Carlos: on July 9, 1974 Franco entered the hospital residence that bore its name; Arias Navarro y Rodríguez de Valcárcel, Chairmen of the Government and courts to the general respectively, indicated the need to delegate powers to Prince don Juan Carlos. Franco initially resisted it, but finally, on July 19, accepted this situation: Prince don Juan Carlos assumed the head of State until the first day of September when Franco returned to resume the power.

Don Juan Carlos is designated heir by Franco to title of King, (21-7-1969).

francisco Franco, original voice.

[July 21, 1969, Franco named Juan Carlos de Borbón his successor before the Royal Council, appointment subsequently ratified by the courts with the result of 491 votes in favour, 19 against and 9 abstentions].

Don Juan Carlos de Borbon y Borbon, original voice.

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Proclamation as King

On November 22, 1975, two days after Franco's death, he/she was proclaimed King of Spain. The solemn proclamation ceremony was held in the Palace of the courts before a large national and foreign representation and with the expectations of thousands of Spaniards who followed the event on radio and television. Juan Carlos swore, before the President of the Cortes, Alejandro Rodríguez de Valcárcel, respect and recognition to the national principles of the movement and the fundamental laws of the Kingdom. But, however, what really had importance were the words that the monarch said after the oath, which are considered programmatic speech of the new era that began in Spain: "(...)They all understand with generosity and high-mindedness that our future will be based on an effective consensus of national harmony...That no one theme that its cause is forgotten, do not expect an advantage or privilege. Together we can do it all if everyone give your fair opportunity (...) "."

Don Juan Carlos de Borbón is proclaimed King of Spain, (22-11-1975).

Alejandro Rodríguez de Valcárcel, original voice.

November 27 held their first official act with mass, Coronation Te Deum celebrated in Madrid the Jerónimos Church, presided over by Cardinal Tarancón, and surrounded by a large crowd that they showed a great affection for the new monarch.

Political transition

The new monarchy

On December 2, 1975 the King Juan Carlos I appointed Torcuato Fernández Miranda Chairman of the courts and the Council of the realm; He/She took advantage of the possibility offered to him by laws of appoint the Chairman of the courts independent of the Government to place on that strategic position to a man of their confidence as Fernández Miranda, who became one of the main characters of the period of transition in Spain. At the behest of Fernández Miranda, President of the Cortes, ratified to Adolfo Suárez as Prime Minister, which would bring forward the political reform act.

On May 14, 1977 his father ceded the dynastic rights that had held the Crown of Spain.

Don Juan de Borbón, count of Barcelona, original voice.

[Don Juan waives his rights to the throne in favour of his son Juan Carlos, in 1977].

After the Referendum of December 6, 1978, in which the Spanish people approve the Constitution, Spain became a parliamentary monarchy and, therefore, Juan Carlos I would, from then on, the King of "a social and democratic State of law". During his reign a new State structure was developed to establish an "autonomous system", guarantees fundamental freedoms, and the death penalty is abolished.

The role of the King was strictly limited to functions of "moderator" and all their acts must be endorsed by the Prime Minister or Minister.

On December 7, 1978 Juan Carlos I, King of Spain, sanctioned the Constitution in a full of both houses; two days later came into force to be published in the official State Bulletin (BOE).

On February 23, 1981, cracked down decisively the attempted coup of State of Lieutenant Colonel Antonio Tejero, which consolidated the Crown as a guarantee of constitutional order.

Juan Carlos I, King of Spain, original voice. Speech by H.M. the King before the attempted coup of 23 February.

In 1982, Charlemagne received the prize, awarded by the Council of Europe and a year later the UNESCO has awarded the Simon Bolivar Prize for the defence of peace and international cooperation and in 1987 the Nansen medal.

In 1995, when the sovereign spent a few days in Majorca, police demolished an attack against this attempt.

On December 12, 2011 Juan Carlos I announced it away to his son-in-law Iñaki Urdangarín of all institutional acts for his involvement in a case of corruption and exploitation of public office. The King stressed the need of a behavior exemplary by all persons with public responsibilities during his traditional Christmas speech.

In April of the year 2012 the monarch suffered a hip fracture during a hunt in Botswana. Criticized by some political parties, the King to leave the hospital publicly stated: "sorry lot. I'm wrong and it will not happen,"all unprecedented during his reign.

Abdication

On June 2, 2014, Don Juan Carlos expressed his willingness to resign in favor of his son Don Felipe de Borbón and Greece which would assume the post of King of Spain, with the name of Felipe VI. Juan Carlos used the collected formula in the Magna Carta, where to allow the succession is necessary the adoption of an organic law and its subsequent publication in the official bulletin of the State. It's the seventh abdication of a King of Spain. Don Juan Carlos, to abdicate, loses his inviolability and the Spanish State, will process through a Royal Decree status of the outgoing monarch, probably giving it the status of volumetric.

On June 19, 2014, Don Felipe de Borbón, is proclaimed King of Spain under the name of Felipe VI.

Offspring

Elena of Bourbon and Greece (1963 - live). Cristina of Bourbon and Greece (1965 - live). Felipe of Bourbon and Greece, Prince of Asturias (1968 - live).

Links on the Internet

http://www.casareal.es/ ; Website of the Spanish Royal family.