Biography of Juana de Arco (1412-1431)

French national heroine and Patron Saint of France, called the "Maid of Orleans". Daughter of Jaques Darc and Isabel Romée, humble peasants, was born January 6, 1412 in Domremy, Lorraine, and died at the stake after being convicted of heresy in 1431.

At the age of thirteen, he maintained that he had heard celestial voices of San Miguel, Santa Catalina and Santa Margarita, which urged it to free her country from the English dominance and Crown to the young Prince Carlos; at this time France was practically under British rule and in the midst of the inner chaos that had led to the hundred years ' war. At the age of sixteen, Juana maintained that these voices pointed to it as the chosen to star in the liberation of France; years earlier, had occurred the battle of Agincourt in which French troops had suffered a terrible defeat against the English, who forced France to sign the Treaty of Troyes in 1420. As consequence of this agreement, France had to accept the proclamation as King of France from a ten-month-old infant, son of Henry V of England, while the real Dauphin of France was secluded and crowned in secret in the town of Berry.

While at first the visions of Joan were not taken seriously, its insistence on its liberating mission got, when hope for supporters of the Dolphin Carlos was null and void and the English had put site to the city of Orleans, capital of the only area that was not subjected to the English power, their views were taken seriously by Captain Bandricourtthat in 1429 he escorted her to Chinon, to meet with the King, Carlos VII. Juana, who considered Carlos as the legitimate heir to the French throne, managed to win his confidence after being subjected to various tests to check the veracity of what I was saying, by which the monarch put at your disposal a small army, comprising among others the chaplain fray Pasquerel, of the order of the Menores brothers of San Agustín, and by the captains Juan Metz and Beltrán de Poulengy. Legend has it that the King gave in addition a luxurious weave and wanted to give him a sword, which she refused arguing that in her visions had been revealed to him the location of the weapon that should be used and which was behind the altar of the Church of Santa Catalina de Furbois; this sword had five crosses on his resume and is said that it belonged previously to Carlos Martel.

With few forces that the King put under its flag, with flowers of lis gold on a white background, marched on the besieged Orléans and freed the city after eight days of fighting. It was the three may 1429, and since that time Juana was known as the maid of Orleans. The feat caused such excitement that he managed to bring French forces around their flag. With them, that same year, he took several riparian squares of the Loire, beat the English general Talbor in Patay and forced general Bedford to withdraw from Paris, but when he started the site in the French capital was called by the King to Reims, where, with all the honors, Carlos VII as absolute King of France, crowned the 17 July 1429.

The King then tried to negotiate with the British, but his indecision led him to suffer a defeat at the gates of Paris. Juana, believing already completed its mission, would then retire from the race. However, it yielded to the pleas of the King and agreed to continue the war. He went then to the rescue of Compiegne square but was captured May 23, 1430 by the Burgundian, who sold it to his English allies. This was transferred to Rouen, main English stronghold in the territory, where he was subjected to a trial before the tribunal of the Inquisition, accused Witch and sorceress.

The Bishop Cauchon, assisted by the viceinquisidor Jean Lamaitre and in compliance with the orders of the British, started an inquisitorial process behind closed doors in the fortress of Rouen. The process was marked by legal irregularities: the prisoner was kept in a secular prison guarded by British soldiers, and not allowed the presence of a lawyer to defend their cause. The text of the process, which is still preserved, contains convinced responses Juana de Arco to the Court, which even caused the perplexity of attendees own judges. Cauchon, unable to condemn it for its acts, because there was nothing contrary to the norms of the Church, they set him a trap and accused her of relapsa. To do this, he managed to Juana jurase publicly will never dress as a man, oath that the skilful Bishop got to that it would be as an act of submission to the Church. It was then returned to jail, found no where to wear more clothes than the man, thus Cauchon managed to make it appear as recidivist of heresy and why she was sentenced to death at the stake, judgment which took place may 30, 1431.

Carlos VII took no action to help who had the throne, it was not until 1450 when the King, already secure in the throne of Paris, carried out a survey on the inquisitorial process of Juana de Arco. Then began the process of rehabilitation of his person and was pressed to Pope Callixtus III to carry it out.

The performance of Juana de Arco, although brief, was decisive for the end of the hundred years ' war and the Suppression of English rule in the Kingdom of France.

She was beatified in 1909 and in 1920 Benedict XV canonized her. His feast is celebrated on May 30, the day he died burned alive at the stake.

JACJ