Biography of la Loca. Queen of Castilla Juana I (1479-1555)

Queen of Castile since November 26, 1504, until the date of his death, nicknamed the mad. Born in Toledo on November 6, 1479 and died April 12, 1555 at Tordesillas.

I juana, La Loca, Queen of Castile.

Biographical synthesis

Third daughter of the Catholic monarchs, Countess of Burgundy and Archduchess of Austria, by his marriage to Felipe the beautiful one (1496). After the death of his nephew Miguel(1500) became in legitimate heir of the crowns of Castile and Aragon. Since the death of Isabel la Católica (1504) Doña Juana became Queen of Castile, but at all times remained on the sidelines of the political decisions adopted by Felipe I, which after facing Fernando el Católico managed to gain absolute control of the Kingdom. Following the death of Felipe, Joanna I handed power over to his father, which due to the mental fragility of his daughter decided to move it away from his political enemies, so that they could not use it against her. So Juana was imprisoned in the Palace of Tordesillas in the year 1509, place where it remained until the date of his death.

The Catholic Kings with his daughter Juana.

First years

Third daughter of the Catholic monarchs, in the opinion of most of his biographers birth should not assume a great event, given the succession had been secured beforehand. The infanta Juana spent the first years of his life in the itinerant court of his parents, with whom he probably had a distant relationship, because of their multiple occupations. Thus, as indicated by Manuel Fernández Álvarez, Juana educated is probably in the company of her younger sisters, the infantas María and Catalina, in palacios away from the border with Granada and supervised by people you trust of the monarchs. With regard to his older brothers, it was also quite far from them, since his brother Juan educated in different conditions since he was the heir to the throne and the infanta Isabel was too old to share education and games with her. Thus, his early years were somewhat solitary and were mainly focused on his education, which began when it was 5 years of age.

Because it was always a secondary character, it was quite unlikely that became the heiress of the Catholic monarchs, it is difficult to determine what were the issues that surrounded his life until he signed his engagement. However, thanks to the documentation which is preserved we know that the preceptor of the infanta from 1485 until the year 1496, was the Dominican Andrés de Miranda, although it was not the only one in teaching to Doña Juana. In various documents, it is witnessed that Beatriz Galindo gave you latin lessons a year (1487-1488), as well as Alexandro Geraldino, who happened to be at your service in the year 1483. So while the latin must have a place of honor in his training, it seems unlikely that their education focused only on this point, since in the Court of their parents important humanists met. His artistic training was not neglected, is testified that from his childhood have a fondness for dance and music, as well as indicate some authors showed showed great agility when playing the harpsichord.

Marriage to Felipethe beautifuland first years in Flanders

The Catholic monarchs since the year 1490 attempted to arrange the marriage of the infanta Juana and Prince Juan Felipe and Margarita, children of the future emperor Maximiliano I, intending to politically isolate France, although they were not successful until the end of the year 1494. Thus the first agreements to carry out the double marriage were signed 20 January 1495 and the negotiations concluded on 5 November of the same year, following the signing of the marriage contract. Shortly after the celebration of the betrothal took place by proxy, ceremony that marked the beginning of a new life for the young Princess, who became the new Duchess of Burgundy and Archduchess of Austria. From the cited month of November it began to plan carefully all the details of the trip. Such preparations were supervised at all times by Queen Elizabeth, which was necessary to ensure the safety of his daughter since the Spanish monarchy was at war with France, not to mention that the monarchs intended to impress his future son-in-law. For these reasons Juana came to Flanders, accompanied by a large group of servants, besides equipped with dresses and jewels that were intended to be a sample of its elevated position. Set out to begin his trip in Laredo guarded by 22 ships, manned approximately 4,500 men, which were put under the orders of Admiral Enríquez.

Completed all the preparations in August 1496, Juana turned to Laredo in the company of his mother and siblings. It has not been evidence that held festivals in his honor in those moments, although because of the magnificence of the Entourage that accompanied it, in which important members of the Castilian and Aragonese nobility were, it seems likely that if due to take place. Despite the lack of data, we know by the chroniclers of the time that Juana spent his last night in Spain in the company of his mother, which should give precise instructions to close which should be his way of proceeding.

By the chronicler Lorenzo Padilla, we know that the journey which led Jeanne to the Netherlands began August 21, 1496 and was haphazard from the start, since 31 August unfavorable winds and currents forced the squad to take refuge on the English coast until September 2. Thus the arrival at the port of Arnemuiden, six days later, he had assumed a great relief for the Archduchess and escorts who soon suffered a tremendous disappointment upon receiving the news that Felipe the beautiful not had gone to receive to his future wife, which after being received by the Archduchess Margaret, approached the city of Antwerpwhere it was on 19 September. It was in this city where the turnout of the Archduchess was forced to stop, Juana after contracting fever chills had to save rest for a few days. So after 1 October to Margaret of York and be completely restored, undertook the journey to the town of Lierre, place where was expected to Felipe the beautiful one.

Joanna of Castile met Felipe III of Burgundy 20 October 1496 and as all his biographers are repeatedly running fell in love with him nothing more to see him. This feeling was possibly enhanced by the great passionate outburst which suffered the Archduke, which gave order to their servers so that the religious ceremony would take place as soon as possible, after the official presentation so to consummate the marriage. But this so promising start soon was breaded, since the friction among the members of the Entourage of the Archduchess and some advisers of Felipe were the order of the day, since many were noble flamingos which saw with bad eyes this marriage and that were of the view that the union would be an obstacle to maintain friendly relations with France. In addition, it should be noted that Felipe initially breached obligations which had bought with his wife in the economic sphere, circumstance that induced the Catholic Kings to send Juan Daza at the end of that same year (1496), to learn first hand about the reasons that had his son-in-law to not deliver the agreed revenue and above all to dismiss most of the servers of his wife.

We ignore as Juana reacted to these events. Since Juana came to Flanders began to behave in a bizarre, behaviour has been interpreted by some authors as one of the first manifestations of severe mental illness which he suffered, although recent studies suggest that possibly the strange behavior of Juana was no more than a way of rebelling against the ill-treatment he suffered at the Flemish Court, since it seems obvious that at no time was treated with consideration and respect imposed by his condition. On the other hand traditionally has embraced that Joan never willingly accepted frequent infidelities that her husband, committed though this assertion has been challenged by some researchers who think that the Archduchess had to be accustomed to this type of behavior, since it was in the public domain that Fernando el Católico had been unfaithful to Elizabeth. But were which were the reasons for Juana it is evident that his attitude caused great concern in the Court of his parents, who decided to send the Netherlands in 1498 to fray Tomás de Matienzo, which had its authorization to act as better consider, although with the utmost discretion.

We know from letters sent by fray Tomás to the Catholic Monarchs that Juana health was good, while he was on the verge of giving birth, although it gives the impression that this was troubled when the Dominic tried to dig into the inner workings of his private life. So at a time when relations between the Burgundian court and the Spanish monarchy were very tense, due to the approaches to Felipe the beautiful had done to the King of France, seems that Joan felt unable to oppose the political decisions taken by her husband, although they were contrary to the interests of the parents, since it was practically isolated in the Burgundian court and their protests, if any, at any time were heard. But what catches the eye is the partnership that had been so carefully prepared Isabel and Fernando to fail, but the strange behavior of Juana, which seems that quite often neglecting their religious duties despite the pressures which the Dominican friar exerted in this regard. September 16, 1498 the eldest daughter of Juana was born and Felipe the beautiful, Leonor, birth that caused great joy in the Court by the ease with which the Archduchess gave birth, though soon reappeared the marital problems between both spouses. In the opinion of authors such as José Manuel Calderón, Juana openly showed discontent that caused him the recent Alliance signed with France, meddling that didn't like the least to Felipe Luis XII .

Joanna of Castile Princess of Asturias

Relations between Felipe the beautiful one and the Catholic monarchs were to deteriorate more with the passage of the years, especially after the death of Prince Juan (1497) and the death of Isabella of Portugal (1498), since the Archduke since then began to titular Prince of Castile while Juana took part in the matter, at least apparently. Thus, bad relations with Isabel and Fernando Felipe passed directly over the Archduchess who increasingly was isolated, although it should have known moments of marital bliss, since February 25, 1500 was born in Ghent, his second son, the future Carlos V. Once again, Doña Juana surprised everyone in the Court due to its ease to give birth, since the first labor pains reached him when he was at a party and the birth occurred shortly afterwards, without that I hardly had time to leave the room where he was.

It was the birth of the small Duke of Luxembourg, which opened a new period of negotiations between Felipe III and his in-laws, concerned that his new grandson educated together with them in order to secure the succession, since the Prince Miguel did not enjoy good health. But Felipe the beautiful was not willing to give up their options to the thrones of Aragon and Castile, reason by which sent one of their men to the Court of the Catholic Kings to keep you informed of any changes. So Felipe and Juana were quickly informed of that quoted Prince had died July 20, 1500, circumstance that turned them into the new Princes of Asturias.

Despite the pressures which the Ambassador of the Catholic monarchs, exerted so that both quickly began the trip to Spain, Felipe did everything possible to delay his departure, while his wife did nothing to prevent it. Juana was used as a pretext to postpone the March, since at the end of the year 1500 was again pregnant which would be his third daughter, Elizabeth of Austria, who was born in Brussels on the 27 July 1501. After the quoted delivery Felipe decided to travel to Spain, but contrary to what was envisaged decided to undertake the March by land, in a clear challenge to his in-laws. So after arriving in Blois, Felipe paid tribute to Luis XII as it required the Protocol, although Juana flatly refused to do the same with the Queen of France, since she was legitimate heir of the Crown of Aragon and Castile, circumstance that it completely changed his position. There are discrepancies in determining whether Juana acted with independence now, since while there are many who believe that the maneuver was calculated by her husband, which not punished by his impertinence as he had done on other occasions, it seems possible to affirm that Juana refused to accept such tribute on the grounds that it was a serious affront to their parents. However if Juana acted independently, it was the last time in his life that he did, because since it bowed out to decisions taken by her husband.

Juana became Castilla on 26 January 1502, visibly overwhelmed by events, and despite the great reception that all lavished him, did not awaken from their slumber until not met with his father in Olias, in the month of April. For her it was a pleasure to serve as translator between Fernando and Felipe and was happy after reunited on May 7 in Toledo, with Queen Elizabeth, which shared some intimate moments before the Castilian cortes recognized her as heir. But happiness for being back in the lands of his childhood did not last long, since receiving the homage of the courts of Aragon, Felipe the beautiful told his in-laws his desire to leave Spain as soon as possible, to despair of Juana who could not accompany him on his return to find again pregnant.

So Felipe left the Court on December 19 of that same year (1502), leaving his wife in a sorry state, because the Princess could not bear to be away from her husband for a long time, although he was finally convinced that it should be for the sake of his son, Fernando of Austria, who was born in Alcalá de Henares 10 March 1503. But when Juana was felt forces to undertake the way back to the Netherlands requested over and over again to allow it is returning, to the chagrin of their parents who did not understand his insistence.

Thus at the end of the year 1503 the situation was already unsustainable, since this after trying to escape from the castle of Mota and stay a night in the open, decided to settle in a small room next to the barriers of the fortress, which refused to leave until they were allowed to leave the Castle. This situation prompted Queen Elizabeth, who was seriously ill, to leave the city of Segovia to meet up with his daughter, who rebuked harshly for his actions, but with no success, since the Princess far from bending to the wishes of his mother confronted her, causing great impact on the Queen, who later commented: "(…)"me so hard, spoke words of both desacatamiento and so out of it that the daughter should say to his mother, than if I didn't see the provision in that she was, I no it if suffered them".

The behavior of the Princess was becoming increasingly more strange, especially after receiving a letter supposedly written by his son Carlos, who had a devastating, effects since this begged his mother to come back as soon as possible. But the letter was not written for the young Duke, who was just 4 years old, but for Felipe the beautiful one, which since coming to Flanders had tried by all means that his wife return to preserve the ascendancy that had on it, since it was aware of that, with appropriate methods, parents could get break their fragile will. But they could do nothing the Catholic Kings to convince her daughter, since if there was a constant in the life of this it was the deep love that he felt for her husband, reason by which finally let it go in the spring of the year 1504.

Queen Joanna I of Castile

When Juana came to the Netherlands didn't find the caring and loving husband who expected to find and also improved its position in the Flemish Court, since even their ladies company she was treated with disdain, circumstances that do not accept willingly and that was the cause of major clashes with Felipe, which tired by his strange behavior and their continuous loving requirements prevented everything the company of his wife. Thus while it is undeniable that sickly love who felt Joan, was one of the causes that contributed to deteriorating mental health, this was not the only reason, since to the heiress of the Catholic Kings must have assumed a terrible humiliation that absence with her when making any important decision, especially when discussed matters relating to their heritage. Therefore it is in this context where you have to enter frequent attacks by ira Juana, which attacked the favorite of her husband with a pair of scissors and even important Court figures who dared contradict his orders. But these increasingly frequent attacks of cholera ended by exhausting the patience of the Archduke, who finally decided to detain Juana in his quarters. Completely isolated, the behavior of the Princess was becoming more and more irregular, since more often than before to neglect their religious obligations, refused to eat food, he refused to wash or on the contrary did not stop doing so and each time was more evident its physical and mental deterioration.

Meanwhile Felipe decided to inform his in-laws of the details of the behavior of his daughter in order to justify their actions in this regard, although he was not aware until months later, thanks to the intervention of don Juan Manuel, that their explanations could be used against her by Fernando el Católico, since I did not know that Isabel, convinced of her daughter's inability to governdecided shortly before his death include a clause which specified that in the event that Juana could not or would not govern the Regency would be occupied by Fernando the Catholic and not by his son-in-law, who was not seen with good eyes in Castile in his testament. Nothing seems to indicate that Juana was aware of what was happening to her around and possibly not informed him that his mother was on his deathbed, although if you must know the news that it had died November 26, 1504. What no doubt is that her husband, relying on the help of Maximiliano, since he received the news did all that was in his hand by seek its re-establishment, since it was contrary to their interests that the courts ruled that this was unable to govern, as wished to Fernando. As well as fruit of this approach Juana was again pregnant and the 15 September 1505 was born in Brussels, María of Austria.

Currently Doña Juana was a deeply unstable person and when she was pressed could act in a manner contrary to the interests of her husband, reason by which the King consort became convinced that it was necessary to maintain your privacy, especially since one of the envoys of Fernando el Católico, piglets López, had gotten the new Queen of Castilla signed a Charter that gave the power to his father. Thus after intercepting the letter and arrest the Envoy of the Catholic King, Felipe forced his wife to sign a letter addressed to Veyre Filiberto, that this justified his strange behavior, claiming that it was only due to jealousy. At this time it is clear that mattered to nobody as Juana was that plunged more and more in his "madness" remained alien to clashes between her father and her husband by power. On the other hand, it should be noted, that the more worse the mental state of the Queen, most irrational showed in all matters surrounding the personal life of her husband, coming to the end of banning any young woman approached him and dismissing their own ladies of company. Doña Juana with reasons or not, he was wary of any woman in any circumstance and refused to Board, when her husband decided that they had to undertake his trip to Spain, because it wanted to accompany them a lady.

Juana finally abandoned the Netherlands, to not return, 8 January 1506, leaving in the domains of her husband to 4 of his 5 sons, because Fernando had been in the custody of his parents in 1504. The crossing was expected to be quiet, was somewhat busy, since a storm was about to make wrecked the ship where the monarchs, were without that Juana inmutara for this reason, since as said some chroniclers, as everyone prepared for the worst she claimed that it was served dinner. Due to the multiple destructions suffered the boat, it was necessary to make scale on the English coasts, circumstance was exploited by the Queen of Castile to visit her sister Catalina, although after some days in his company returned to the coast, possibly by desire for her husband, who did not want to behave so inconvenient. The new Kings of Castile landed in La Coruña in late April 1506, without that Juana attending parties that were organized in his honor, since apparently you only interested in control to her husband, which after having on your side most of the Castilian nobles became absolute owner of power in the Kingdom. But while it tried to free themselves from the burden of maintaining his wife at his side, most of the greats of Castilla refused to recognize that Juana was incapacitated, since the Admiral Enríquez exposed to notables of the Kingdom which after spending two days in Mucientes conversing with the Queen found therein no clear symptoms of madness.

The last months of life of Felipe the beautiful one, were very hard to Doña Juana, besides knowing the circumstances in which his father had abandoned Castile, the distance with her husband was already insurmountable, since this waiting to be able to get rid of his wife avoided to stay beside her all out, leaving to hunt frequently and even visiting places of ill-repute, as brothels. But despite this estrangement, Felipe the beautiful one could not help but always the requirements of his wife, who was pregnant for the sixth and final time shortly before that event of his death.

The death of Felipe the beautiful was a blow to Jane, who during the days which lasted his agony remained next to him without shedding a single tear. So it was only possible to separate it from the bed of her husband when the surgeons proceeded to embalm his body, although once it was concluded the process was next to the corpse until it was deposited in the Cartuja de Miraflores. Juana never recovered from her loss and already from the first moments it was evident that the Queen was unable to govern alone, reason why before the chaos that took the administration it was decided, at the request expresses Queen, relinquish power to Fernando the Catholic, although at the time he was out of Spaincircumstances that it considerably complicated the situation. We can thus say that Doña Juana obstinate to not sign any document without the express permission of his father, to the bewilderment of the notables of the Kingdom who didn't know how to act and mostly did not know how to get your state of prostration to a Queen who only had strength to visit her dead husband.

Joanna I, Queen loca de Tordesillas

20 December 1506, approximately three months after the death of her husband, Doña Juana joined as it was his custom in the Cartuja de Miraflores, but on this occasion it will not complied with see the body, he ordered his servants to conduct the preparations necessary to transfer the remains of Felipe to Granada. No one was able to refuse to fulfill his wishes, since it was feared that an annoyance could advance delivery. So that day was launched the procession, which always traveling by night arrived four days later in the village of Torquemada. Torquemada was born the infanta Catalina 14 February 1507 and there was where initially Juana decided to wait for his father, away from the pressures to which was subject in Burgos. However, unless we know why, in the middle of April the Queen decided to leave, arriving the day 21 to stoves, where he received the news that Fernando el Católico was on the way to Castile. During this month the Queen continued celebrating funeral masses in memory of her husband. He had also refused to travel day and it had given orders so that no woman closer to the corpse of Felipe, just like when this was living.

Finally the long-awaited meeting of Juana with his father occurred August 29, 1507, and the village of Tórtoles, where the Queen delivered the Government of Castile to this that nothing could do to correct the strange habits that had acquired his daughter, reason by which gave its authorization so that it will be installed in arches. The Queen remained in bows for a few months, although the lack of means of the town necessitated her father convinced her to move, always on a provisional basis to Tordesillas, temporary accommodation, which became their last residence.

Fernando el Católico controlled virtually unchallenged power in Castile until the date of his death. While his daughter Juana came under the custody of one of the partners of his father, the Aragonese Luis Ferrer, which was that the Queen was completely isolated from the outside world, without that nothing of what was happening inside the Palace of Tordesillas transcend public opinion. Thus Ferrer, we only have data as well did his job about how took Juana's life during these years, although we know that forbade it is strictly out of his residence and his mental health worsened considerably. This worsening was cleverly tapped by the Governor of Castilla, that accompanied the characters more important realm visited his daughter finding her in a sorry state, since it refused to wash, change clothes, he slept on the floor and often refused to eat.

We had to wait for producing the death of the Catholic King to receive news about the State that was the Queen of Castile. So when Cardinal Cisneros took power, Ferrer had to leave his post accused of not attempting to achieve that Juana recovered and have abused their authority. But we must not forget that Cisneros knew first-hand the situation of Doña Juana and although he did not trust that it would possible for producing their cure, in order to eliminate suspicions that his situation generated, helped different doctors that examine the case of this one, which apparently after receiving some care experienced a marked improvement. But the new Governor, Hernán Duque Estrada and Guzmán, while it was more permissive, broadly fulfilled the same role of its predecessor, Juana remained alien to any event that took place beyond the walls of the Palace and it was not even informed that there had been the death of his father.

The arrival of Carlos I to Spain in 1517 was an important change in the conditions of life of the Queen of Castile, since his son, especially after the outbreak of the revolt of the comuneros, not only was interested in isolating his mother, as Cisneros and his grandfather had done, but also because of the irregular way in which came to powerHe did everything possible to make it was forgotten by all. So after fire Hernán Duque de Estrada, appointed as Governor of the House of Doña Juana a man of proven loyalty, don Bernardo Sandoval and Rojas, II Marqués de Denia, which remained in this position since March 15, 1518 until the date of his death (1536), being succeeded by his firstborn son, don Luis, which used the same title as his father. We can say that both Dukes exerted total control over an increasingly helpless Juana, which as the only weapon used fasting to rebel. There is no doubt about that nothing was made because Juana regained sanity, since otherwise tightened their living conditions. Thus not allowed it will receive any visits outside the family, as no authorization gave it so that you will visit the tomb of her husband installed in the convent of Santa Clara, not to mention that it was the end of ban it out of his quarters, which had to be constantly illuminated with candles, since they had no windows. Thus only once could out Joan of the Palace, due to an outbreak of plague which raised fears for his health, although this output was controlled at all times by the Marquis of Denia and only lasted a few days.

Mention aside deserves the only real opportunity that Juana had to shake off the authority both of his jailer, as his son, in 38 years, that it is none other than the commune uprising, since these early on showed supporters of restoring the power of the legitimate Queen. Carlos I had managed the Castilian cortes to recognizing him as King before his mother's death, clearly irregular, although this when he saw for the first time his son, after the long years that had been separated, accepted this to exercise power in its name. Thus, although initially Juana was relieved after the flight of the Marquis of Denia and verbally supported the aspirations of the Communards, who settled with her in Tordesillas, refused to sign any document that could be ill it with Carlos V, decision that stood firm despite the many pressures that are exerted sobe it in this sense. So never again will have a similar chance, since Carlos V gave orders stark to the Marquis of Denia, to be all that necessary, strictly giving this absolute freedom to have it at every moment.

Finally, it seems important to point out that monotonous life that took Joanna at Tordesillas only was interrupted by few visits he received from relatives and especially by the March of the infanta Catherine, the only one of his sons who grew up next to her and which had tried to separate it in 1518, so the young take a life consistent with their position. Although Juana generally just showed interest in these visits, which possibly had no news until shortly before the arrival of the character in question, we can attest to moments in which this was glad sincerely family members. It was evident the joy he felt when his son Carlos and his daughter Leonor visited for the first time when they arrived in Spain, as it was also that he enjoyed watching dancing to his grandchildren, the future Felipe II and María Manuela of Portugal, when they came to visit her after their marriage. This way is also palpable indifference which caused generally visits of Carlos V and the animosity that felt by his granddaughter Joan of Austria, probably by the beauty of this, since the misogyny accompanied the Queen until her death.

Death of Doña Juana

With the passing of the years, it is possible to detect as the interest of the imperial family by the State of health of Doña Juana was increasing, since one thing was to accept that this had remained locked during most of his life for reasons of State and another very different that is eternally condemned for failing to comply with the precepts that the Catholic Church marked. Thus began to take action in this regard since the year 1552, moment in which the Marquis of Denia reported that the physical condition of the mother of the emperor was rapidly deteriorating.

In this way the future Felipe II, decided to request the help of the Jesuit Francisco de Borja, as this as well as enjoy enormous prestige, knew to Doña Juana since his childhood, since he had been their daughter Catalina menino. But still Queen of Castile in its own right, stubborn to the end of his days, even accepting that it agreed with all the precepts marked from Rome refused flatly to fulfill their religious duties, claiming in his defence that las Dueñas which remained with her, were a few witches who laughed at her when he started his prayerswhich until these not disappeared no could comply with what the Jesuit father asked him is why. Francisco de Borja did not give credit to what he considered the ravings of a disturbed, even if promptly reported comments from the Queen to her grandson, who was interested to know the details of the progress of Juana, which apparently rejected some blessed candles and not behaved with correction when celebrating the Eucharist in his presence. Francisco de Borja deeply disappointed by the lack of progress, so decided to leave the care of the spirit of Doña Juana in the hands of fray Luis de la Cruz, which tried to pressure her to accept the sacraments, without significant results, although it was finally forced to admit that this was not responsible for their actions, reason why it was free of any blame. Joan of Austria was not quiet with this resolution and therefore sent to Tordesillas again to the aforementioned Francisco de Borja, which can make a determination decided to resort to the Professor of Salamanca Francisco de Soto, that seeing the lamentable state of Juana, decided that it was necessary to wait for the Queen to lose the knowledge, to proceed with the anointing of the sick, since it was not wanting to confess, why he did not feel ready to administer the viaticum.

Leaving aside considerations about the spiritual status of Doña Juana, it should be noted that this suffered a terrible ordeal the last years of his life, since after being paralyzed his legs, she found herself prostrate in a bed without just disabled, circumstances which favoured the appearance of sores. These sores while initially appeared and disappeared, little by little were becoming permanent, until they finally led to the feared gangrene, irreversible disease for which there was no adequate treatment. It was even possible to save sufferings to the Queen, since it refused to ingest medicines that their pharmacists prepared.

Joanna of Castile after losing consciousness during a few hours, died at 6 in the morning of April 12, 1555, at the age of 76 years, without the company of any of their children and grandchildren. After his death, being certified, the Marquis of Denia organized a discreet funeral, which took place 3 days later in the Church of the convent of Santa Clara, place where they remained his remains until the year 1574, date in which Felipe II decided to move the body of his grandmother to the Cathedral of Granada, although his tomb was not completed until the year 1603.

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