Mexican politician, born in Guelatao de San Pablo on March 21, 1806 and died in the city of Mexico in 1872. Indian Thoroughbred, soon lost his parents and entered the seminary in Oaxaca. Considered the father of the modern Mexican State, graduated in law in 1834. Previously, in 1831, he was elected municipal councillor of Oaxaca. Later, in 1853, was appointed Deputy and Governor by his native Oaxaca State, until he was imprisoned and banished to Havana that same year, when the general Antonio López de Santa Anna seized power. Deported to New Orleans (Louisiana, United States), he returned to Mexico in 1855 to take part in the liberal revolution that overthrew Santa Anna.
Following the Plan of Ayutla (1854-1855), which called for the creation of a constituent Assembly in the framework of a federal Constitution, he was appointed Counsellor of State and little later Minister of Justice in the Government of Comonfort. In this position he enacted liberal laws that affected the interests of the army and the clergy and that inspired the liberal Constitution of 1857. Comonfort, however, staged a coup and imprisoned Juarez, which meant the beginning of the war of reform and access to the Presidency of the conservative Zuloaga, after a coup (1858), forced to flee to Comonfort.
Due to its status as President of the Supreme Court of Justice, Juarez became the legitimate President and as such formed Government, settled in Veracruz, and issued reform laws. By these secularized church property, abolished religious orders, laicizó State, created the civil registry and reformed the civil service.
The civil war ended after the battle of San Miguel de Calpulalpan (1860) and Juarez came into city of Mexico, but his Government must confront the problem of external debt, so he decided to suspend payments to foreign creditors. France, Spain and Great Britain, in protest, landed troops in Veracruz. Juarez reached an agreement with Britain and Spain, and his troops withdrew from Mexico, but the French remained in the country and took the city of Mexico. Maximiliano, Archduke of Austria, imposed by the Emperor Napoleón III of France at the request of the royalist sectors, who organized a mock referendum, was crowned Emperor of Mexico in 1864.
During the Empire of Maximiliano (1864-1867), Juarez was established in Paso del Norte and kept the constitutional Government until, with the help of the United States of America, he managed to advance on the capital, which became in July 1867, after you shoot the General Miramon and Maximiliano. Re-elected President, governed facing the scarcity of resources and the uprisings of Trevino and Porfirio Díaz. In 1872 he suppressed the revolt Porfirio Diaz of the Ferris wheel, but she died shortly after a heart attack. The Congress declared him Benemérito of the homeland and of the Americas.