German politician and philosopher. Once his studies in Vienna he devoted himself to journalism and worked for the Socialist press. In 1883, he founded Die nueue Zeit, publication which he directed until 1917 and which became the most important magazine Marxist of the age. The death of Marx and Engels long enjoyed the reputation of being the heir of that "scientific" socialism, which had its headquarters in Germany. Against the revisionist wing of Marxism, led by Bernstein, Kautsky claimed to always defend the orthodoxy, giving it a look mechanical, schematically deterministic, based on the end of capitalism and its overcoming which considered inevitable by socialism, although he saw this step more in terms of evolution (was always heavily influenced by Darwinian theories), that revolutionary break. In terms of ethics, Kautsky reduces it to an expression of the "social instincts" explained in Darwinian sense. While derived from the origin of class, these instincts give rise to an ethic which expresses the universal values of liberation of the proletariat, in antithesis with the restricted boundaries of the bourgeois moral.
Works: The economic doctrines of Karl Marx (1887), the program of Erfurt (1892), ethics and materialist conception of history (1906), the social revolution (1909), and the materialist conception of history (1927).