Biography of Piotr Alexeievich Kropotkin (1842-1921)

Aristocrat and Russian revolutionary theoretician, born in Moscow on 9 December 1842 and died in Dmitrov, on February 8, 1921. It was one of the great entertainers of the international anarchist movement, and his writings are texts of reference of the anarchist communist tendency of libertarian thought.

The first years

He was the youngest son of an aristocratic family resident in Moscow. The Kropotkin were great princes of Smolensk. Their ancestors had ruled the Principality of Kiev and descended from the dynasty of the Rourik, which had governed Russia before the Romanovs. His father, Alexander, was a military and a "harsh and inflexible" farm owner, said of his son. His mother, Catherina Nicolaïevna Soulima, Ukrainian Cossack origin, was the daughter of a general who had fought in the war against Napoleon and had reached the position of Governor-General of Siberia. Kropotkin mother died young, and her husband, who remarried, is not held in excess of their children.

He spent his first 15 years of life between the family home and the property of Nikoloskoie, in the province of Kaluga, 270 km from Moscow. The brothers were placed under the control of a convinced French, Orleanist tutor and former soldier of the Napoleonic Grande Armee. In 1853 he attended the high school in Moscow, and in 1857 began his preparation for a military career in the body of the pages of the Tsar, the Academy of the most distinguished of the imperial Russia, consisting of 150 selected cadets who had direct access to the Court or to the staff after completing his studies. Although it strengthened his interest in Russian politics and the natural sciences, his five year stay in this rigidly disciplinarian Academy was quite troubled, and predisposed him to developing a character of net questioning of all authority.

The Russian defeat in the Crimean War and the perception of popular relief after the death of Tsar Nicolás I on 18 February 1855 led to the young Kropotkin to emphasize his interest in Russian radical writers, especially by Alexander Herzen and Nikolay Chernichevsky, from 1858. At the end of 1861 he published his first article in the newspaper Chernichevsky Sovremennik, which commented on the work of Engels on the situation of the working class in England. Sent to the Court as a page of Alejandro I, who, in March 1861, had decreed the abolition of serfdom, was disappointed immediately the palatial atmosphere and the attitude of the Tsar, who returned to the autocratic Government with the repression of the student movement and the Polish nationalism after their initial reformist whims.

Their stay in the body of pages ended in mid-1862, and then entered the military without great enthusiasm race, since he wanted to follow his scientific studies at the University of Moscow. On June 13 he was sent to a French infantry regiment in the Amur against the will of his father, and 24 went to the remote region, where he was accepted as an aide-de-camp of the general Koukel, Chief of the General staff known for his radical sympathies. Installed in Tchita, in the Transbaikalia, was appointed Commissioner for Special Affairs of the Governor general of the Eastern Siberia and the Transbaikalia. It began drafting a report on the situation in the prisons, the Government needed by the large influx of deportees that it was taking place in the region after the defeat of the Polish insurrection of 1863. This work left deep marks on Kropotkin, as you could see the difficult life of the political prisoners, but also the corruption and incompetence of the Tsarist administration. At the same time he wrote another project on the creation of a municipal self-government, which was too democratic for the authorities, but their experiences on the study of the reforms that were carried out in this remote area of Russia significantly influenced his later thought.

At the beginning of 1863, his Defender Koukel was denounced as radical and had to leave his post. Kropotkin was then earmarked for Cossacks Affairs close to the Governor general of Irkutsk, and was appointed responsible for providing prison colonies of the lower Amur, which allowed him to start vast explorations in the recently conquered Eastern Siberia. In 1864 it agreed to initiate a geographical expedition to Manchuria, in order to locate a route used by the mongles to transport cattle from the Transbaikalia to the Amur province. It went up and down this river several times that summer, and came to Nikolaevsk. In autumn he made another informal expedition through Manchuria to the Chinese city of Kirin, which drafted a report which appeared in the reports of the Siberian geography society. Another expedition in 1865 Kropotkin took to the Turkinsk Valley and the slope North of mountains Saïan, on the Chinese border, where he was the first to discover traces of ancient ice and volcanic formations. But their most important issue, and that it earned him more scientific fame, was directed in 1866 under the patronage of the Russian geographical society towards the mountainous and desert of firewood, in the North of Siberia, and towards the sectors of highest in the Amur near Tchita, with the aim of uncovering a direct communication between the Transbaikalia and the Lena gold mines. He explored the Plains Patom and Vitim, and discovered the route from Khingam to Merghem, lost to Europeans from the 17TH century. Your journey, more than 1,400 km, allowed him to obtain a precise structural knowledge of the North-Western Asia, which would give you the elements of analysis needed to develop his theories on the geomorphological structure of that region, which, in his opinion, had its origin in a solid old primary which was in turn the vestige of a still more ancient circumpolar continent in the future.

At the end of 1866 he attended a Council of war against a group of Poles who had mutinied in Krugobaikal, of which five were sentenced to death and executed. Kropotkin sent notes of the meetings of the process to a liberal daily of Petersburgo with which he collaborated from 1862. This incident alienated him with the Governor, who forced him to move to Petersburgo in the autumn of 1867. Upon arrival to the capital, resigned from his military career and was transferred to the civil administration as titular Counsellor of the Ministry of the Interior, and from November to the Central Commission for statistics. In may 1872 he would resign from his post in the Ministry and would receive the honorific title of Advisor to colleges.

When he returned to Petersburgo in 1867, Kropotkin was already known as a scientist of advanced liberal ideas. He went to study physics and mathematics at the University, and to the geographical society of Russia presented a detailed report on his expedition to Vitim, so was warmly congratulated, decorated with the Medal of the institution and named for the Secretariat of the section of physical geography, responsible for assessing the scientific expeditions that were performed at that time. In 1868 he began working on the problem of the opening of the northern seas, and in 1871 had the opportunity to travel to Sweden and Finland to study the glaciers of the Baltic. With its notes she wrote a memoir which, after quite a few difficulties for the character of prisoner and political exile of its author, was published in the annals of the geographical society between 1876 and 1895.

The Paris Commune of 1871 and the development of the first international determined its ideological shift. It was apparently during his stay in Finland in 1871 when he made the decision to participate in the populist revolutionary movement (narodniki) Russian, but influenced by magazines such as Bell and Sovremennik, their democratic ideas had forged in his youth, when he sympathized with the Polish insurrection of 1863. However, a trip made between February and may of 1872 to Germany and Switzerland initiated him into the activities of the International Socialist Movement (AIT). In Geneva could see large differences between the "anti-authoritarian" (bakuninista) and the 'authoritarian' wing (Marxist) worker organization, and was informed of the lines of activity and ideas of the Jura Federation, affiliated to this latest trend.

After passing through Vienna and Warsaw, he returned to Petersburgo on May 3, 1872. He officially presented his resignation from the public service and joined a group of narodniki called "Circle Tchaïkovski", exclusively dedicated to propaganda and education tasks. It was around this time when he wrote his pamphlet we need to address the future realization of the ideal study?, where he advocated the implementation of a social revolution complete under the bakuninista model. At the beginning of 1874, the "Tchaïkovski circle" was broken up by the Tsarist police, and Kropotkin was arrested and confined in the fortress of Pedro and Pablo in absolute isolation. His brother Alexander, who had come to his aid, was arrested and deported to Siberia, where committed suicide on 6 August 1886.

The exile

After two years of imprisonment, Kropotkin was able to escape on June 30, 1876, house arrest of Petersburgo and, after passing through Finland, Sweden and Norway, arrived at the English port of Hill at the beginning of August with the assumed name of Alexis Levachov. Established in Edinburgh, won the life writing scientific articles for the journal Nature and the Times of London, city moved that in September, and where engaged in relations with Piotr Lavrov. In December of that year he travelled back to Jura, where he found the workers of the Federation (which at that time was the ideological centre of European anarchism) and acratas activists James Guillaume, Paul Brousse (with whom he collaborated in the drafting of the Avant Garde magazine from June 1877), and the Italians Carlo Cafiero and Enrico Malatestathat in that moment were preparing an insurrection in Benevento (Italy) which would fail the following year. Kropotkin decided to settle in Geneva in February, 1877, and at the beginning of June was ready to travel to Spain with Severino Albarracín. He also published his first theoretical articles of libertarian content in the Bulletin de la Fédération Jurasienne and participated in Verviers at the last Congress of the section bakuninista of the AIT.

On September 9, while participating as a guest at the International Socialist Congress of Ghent, the Belgian police forced him to embark in Antwerp bound for London. In the British Museum reading room, he began his first research on the French Revolution, which continued in the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris, city where he met Andrea Costa and Jules Guesde. At the end of April 1878, he returned to Geneva, and from there made a short trip to Spain, where he found the anarchist movement divided between sections of the Centre and South of the country, leaning by the violence, and Catalan organizations opting for the trade unionist via. At the beginning of August he returned to Geneva, where he found the populist activist Vera Zasulich and where you could see the organizational decline of the Jura Federation. That same year he published the anarchist idea from the point of view of the practical realization, which advocated the collectivist commune as the embryo of the new society. On 8 October he married Sofía Ananiev, Russian of Jewish origin, that on April 15, 1887 would have his only daughter, who called Alexandra in memory of his brother. In the next three years, embarked on a feverish campaign of anarchist proselytizing for much of Europe.

On February 22, 1879 appeared the first issue of Le Révolté, newspaper directed by Kropotkin that until his disappearance in March 1894 was considered the unofficial international organ of the anarchist groups, and that would soon pull two thousands of copies. In this magazine he published 1 November his article "The anarchist idea from the point of view of its practical realization", which postulated the need based social revolution on the transforming action of the Federated local communes and anarchist groups independent, responsible for the expropriation and collectivization of the means of production. In his opinion, the revolution should pass through collectivism before reaching communism. He was soon disappointed by their internal quarrels and international programmatic constraints, so that when the AIT was dislocated in the trends Marxist and bakuninista, Kropotkin was linked to the sector federations and libertarian. In the Congress of Chaux-de-Fonds in 1879 he was appointed corresponding Secretary of the anti-authoritarian international.

In 1880, Kropotkin moved to Clarens, where engaged in personal relationships with Elisée Reclus and collaborated in the realization of his magna work Géographie Universelle. At that time it spoke out strongly for the first time in favour of the "direct, immediate Communist anarchism", and was in accordance with other personalities such as Cafiero or Dumartheray to propose acceptance in its Congress of 9 and 10 October 1880 of anarchist communist doctrine that had spread in numerous speeches to the Jurasiana Federation. This concept, reported from 1876, was taken first by the Italian anarchists, then came to Switzerland and, later, to France and Belgium, from 1880. Its revolutionary appeal "for young people", appeared in Le Révolté from June to August of that year, had enormous influence in the international anarchist environment and was translated into several languages.

After the murder of the zar Alejandro II in March 1881 and the subsequent execution of several populist, it published as he denounces the article "The truth about the executions in Russia", and was prepared to support the terrorist organization Naródnaia Volia. When on 14 July, she participated in London in the 10th Congress socialist revolutionary international as a representative of the Geneva group, Kropotkin opted for encouraging the riots and partial insurrections, preferably at the farm level, since "the first uprisings of a revolution may not be more object that disturb the Government machine, stop it, break it. And it is necessary to do so to make possible the successive developments of the revolution." He agreed with Bakunin in the inevitability of violence as a result of social inequality, and the need to encourage rebellions and insurrections to overthrow the bourgeois system. But postulated the individual terror or "individual acts of protest" as a means of "revolutionary education" of the masses, which would spontaneously adopt an own organization to reach the Communist society where all men satisfy their needs. The subversion of the law should be "by Word, in writing," by the dagger, gun, dynamite. Congress ended up affirming the need for the use of "propaganda by the fact" as a means of revolutionary action, Kropotkin, who defended the thesis of nihilistic violence, from the pages of the Swiss newspaper Le Révolte later sweetened its position under the influence of the British anarchists, but recognized the futility of "propaganda by the fact" in 1891. Thereafter, he used his time in speculating on the progressive disappearance of the relations of violence in a more and more solidarity-based society.

Speaking at the Congress of London attracted him the wrath of the authorities. After returning to Switzerland in August, the Federal Council at the request of the Russian Government ordered his expulsion from the country. On 30 August, Kropotkin family left Geneva and moved to Thonon, on the French side of Lake Geneva, to move then to London. The anarchist intellectual there recovered its relations with Malatesta, Cafiero and Reclus, lectured against tsarism, summarized his research on the French Revolution and wrote many collaborations for the magazines of The Nineteenth Century (a relationship that would last thirty years), Nature, The Times and Fortnightly Review, as well as for the Encyclopædia Britannica. This did not mean the abandonment of their responsibilities in Le Révolté, where he published two important social studies: "the law and the authority" and "Revolutionary Government". In an article about Darwin outlined main lines of what would be its mutual aid theory, by stating that "solidarity and work in common strengthen the species in the struggle for survival against the adverse forces of nature".

Disillusioned with the British political atmosphere, Kropotkin decided to return to France in the autumn of 1882. On October 26 he moved again with his wife in Thonon, but the resurgence of worker agitation, with the events of Montceau-les-mines and the explosion of a bomb in the Lyon Bellecour square on December 20, 1882 as major events, put them back into the point of view of the police, who arrested him on 21 December and imprisoned him in the prison of Saint-Paul de Lyon. The "process of the 66" by affiliation to the international, which took place from 8 to 19 January 1883, was the occasion for Kropotkin enters into a brilliant defense that allowed him to disclose the anarchist throughout Europe doctrine, but not delivered him from a sentence to five years in prison, thousand francs of fine, ten years of police surveillance and the loss of rights civic for five years.

Kropotkin continued to send their press collaborations from Lyon and Clairvaux prison. His articles were collected in the book words of a rebel, published first in French by Flammarion House in 1885, and in 1887 the light would be another play about his life in Russian and French prisons. His prison experience began to undermine your health: at the end of 1883, he contracted malaria, and on January 15, 1886 was released after an intense intellectual and political campaign, where it was key to the intercession of the likes of William Morris and Victor Hugo. Kropotkin returned to England on February 28, but not before to pronounce in Paris before thousands of supporters an "Anarchism in the Socialist evolution" Conference.

The fourth stay of Kropotkin in England, started in March 1886, marked the beginning of a relatively long and stable period of his life, expiring in 1917. Transformed by his hectic life in a romantic myth among the Holy and the hero, his intellectual side made him also in a Sage recognized internationally as a scientist and as a theorist of the anarco-comunismo. Then it was one of the highest figures of Anarchist Communism. Collaborated in the Parisian daily La Revoltre and Les Temps Nouveaux and participated in the activities of the British Socialist League. Installed in Harrow, on the outskirts of London, and later in Brighton, he turned in his scientific work (especially sociological) and, despite becoming a popular speaker at England and Scotland, withdrew more and more everyday anarchist propaganda. However, in April 1886, he organized the anarchist group Freedom and from October participated in the drafting of the homonymous monthly newspaper, which would not abandon until 1914.

Chicago events" and the economic crisis of 1886-87 reinforced the influence of anarchism in the bosom of the English labour movement. At that time, Kropotkin collaborated in intellectual magazines like Temps Nouveaux, or Geographical Journal (1893-1905), but also in newspapers as The Speaker or The Forum, and in American magazines such as The Atlantic Monthly, The North American Review and The Outook. In 1888 he started his work in industrial sociology, especially on the centralizing trend observed in the process of the industrial revolution, and in 1891 was drafted fields, factories and workshops, his main work on economic organization and the integration of industrial activities. Kropotkin rejected the specialization and concentration of manufacturing labour, and advocated decentralization and local and individual integration of work as a basis for a more just social and personal life. In 1889, his interest turned to focus on the French Revolution, subject to which he dedicated a series of articles for The Nineteenth Century which were the prelude to his magna work expiring two decades later. In March 1890 appeared his essay intellectual work and manual work. During those years he also showed interest in biology and anthropology, in order to put together his theory on the role of mutual aid in the life of man and animals, defined as a factor of evolution opposed competition Darwinist which in those years was being applied to political life by the Malthusian school. In the social field, concluded that the action of the State was ineffective, while the mutual assistance was of great importance to the struggle for existence. The anarchist Kropotkin doctrine is directly linked to his ideas in the natural sciences. In biology, his ideas of mutual aid as a factor in evolution and the absence of an intraspecific fighting nature represents one of the most important links with Darwinism. He noted that all forms of life depend on the help and mutual support, and tried to apply this principle to the social life. At the time, he acknowledged that natural and social life were penetrated the principle of struggle, which is fruitful and progressive when it destroys old ways and promotes the emergence of others based on the principles of freedom, justice and solidarity. According to Kropotkin, the progressive struggle of the proletariat against capitalism should not be transferred to a struggle for power that would inevitably degenerate into arbitrariness and despotism. To that purpose, at the end of 1890 he wrote two essays on mutual assistance between the animals and the wild peoples.

In 1892 French published his best-known work: the conquest of bread. At this meeting items reported by Le Révolté and La Révolte heir, Kropotkin said that the inheritance of humanity in production and means of production was collective, and that it was impossible to distinguish the contribution of different individuals, so that the benefits of production should be enjoyed collectively. It reverted to affirm that social life should not be based neither in the own capitalist individualism competition nor in the restrictive regulation of State socialism, but solidarity among individuals and voluntary cooperation. The work, which was described by Zola as "a real poem", was translated into Italian in 1894, to the Spanish and Portuguese in 1895, 1896 in German and English in 1906. In 1893 he was elected member of the British Scientific Association, which he exhibited in 1897 his theory of the geological relationship between Canada and Siberia.

In 1894, a decline of anarchism in England in favour of the newly created independent Labour Party was confirmed. Kropotkin maintained despite all its prestige thanks to its increasingly more blatant abandonment of militant anarchism, by its doubts about the imminence of the revolution and his antipathy to violence that seemed to dominate the anarchist practice on the continent at the end of the century. In 1894 he maintained a polemic with Pouget and Malatesta concerning the convergence between acracia and unionism, since he was fond of any company based in la libertad (voluntary association), solidarity (Communist cooperation) and the creation of the organized proletariat revolutionary forces, but I thought that these organizations needed a penetration and momentum that could only guarantee the libertarian activists.

On March 7, 1896 traveled to Paris to give a lecture about the status in the Salle le des Mille Colomnes, to 5,000 attendees. He protested the exclusion of the anarchists of the of the II International Congress held in London in July following, and participated in the campaign against torture prisoners of Montjuïc in January 1897.

Starting from 1896 he became a hugely popular speaker at international level. In 1897 he began his first lecture tour of Canada (Toronto to Victoria) and United States (Chicago, Philadelphia, New York, Boston - where three lectured at Harvard - and Washington mutual aid). In 1898 he wrote about the ups and downs of his life for the Atlantic Monthly, in an early version of his memoirs of a revolutionary, that would be published in 1900. In 1899 made statements of dreyfusismo in the magazine Les Temps Nouveaux (see Dreyfus affair).

From February to April 1901 he began a second journey thanks to the invitation of the Lowell Institute in Boston to give a series of lectures on Russian literature. He was received in a massive way in most of the great schools of the northeast of the United States: Boston, New York, Chicago, Urbana, Madison, Buffalo... In 1902 he watched with interest the birth of revolutionary syndicalism in France and the first great general strike in Barcelona. In 1903 and 1904 he delivered important lectures on its geological theories to the Geographic Society in London, but since then his intellectual concerns were drifting towards the formulation of an ethics of libertarian content. In 1904, he published the moral need of the present time, and in 1905 the morale of nature, which came to be added to the morale of the anarchist, work published in 1890 as an extension of his theory of the mutual assistance in the field of ethics. His law of mutual assistance and solidarity is also on the basis of his ethical teachings: the basis of human morality are solidarity, justice and self-sacrifice, which unfold with the instinct of mutual aid acquired from the animal world. To counter the anarchic individualism, Kropotkin sought to build a realistic and materialistic ethic based on the "Physics of morality".

The revolutionary events of February 1905 temporarily diverted his attention to the Russian scene. It was at that point when it declared that it could adhere to the soviets in how bodies against the bourgeoisie and the State, but not as organs of the authority. From 1906-07 wrote in the Russian magazine Listki Khleb i Volya (bread and freedom pages), and was an active member of a foundation to help Russian émigrés.

After a brief stay in France between 1905 and 1908, the breakdown of his health forced him to spend the winters from 1909 to 1914, away from the English climate, in Switzerland and in Italy. At the end of the first decade of the century, Kropotkin just appears in public, except to protest the execution of Francisco Ferrer in the summer of 1909. In the same year appeared his most ambitious work: the great French Revolution, along with a booklet of complaint about the terror in Russia. In 1911 he moved from Bromley to Brighton, where it hardly moved, but to attend the International Congress of eugenics which took place at the University of London in 1912. Surrendered at the end of that year a gala tribute at the Palace Theatre in London, where intervened among others the writer George Bernard Shaw, but he was absent.

The first world war, the 1917 Revolution and return to Russia

The outbreak of the first world war profoundly disturbed his spirit. From the first moment, spurred by the deep antigermanismo he professed since 1890, stood on the side of the allies, especially of his admired France. Along with Grave, Cornelissen and Malato, Paul Reclus, he published the "manifesto of the 16" pro-war. Unexpected warmongering of the old libertarian theorist was conveniently used by the Bolsheviks campaigned anti-anarchist, and forced Kropotkin to break with the Freedom, to group similar to most of those involved in the international anarchist movement had opted for a pacifism to wishful thinking.

Upon receipt of the first news of the uprising in February 1917 (see Russian Revolution), it supported the patriotic origins of the revolution and without further delay embarked in Aberdeen to Norway, Sweden and Finland, with the aim of returning to Russia after 41 years of exile. He arrived in Petrograd in praise of crowds and ushered in a period of frenzied political activity. Expressed their sympathy by Prince Lvov and his successor Kerenski (who, it is said, refused a ministerial portfolio), but his stance earned him the antipathies of most anarchists and revolutionary Socialists. Shortly afterwards, without strength to withstand the agitated life of Petrograd, moved to Kamenny Ostrov, not far from the city, and in August went to reside in Moscow. At the end of that month he participated at the Conference of State convened by Kerensky, which was opposed to the Bolsheviks and argued in favour of social peace and the establishment of a federal Republic similar to the of the United States based on the zemstvos or regional councils.

Although it did not see with good eyes the insurrection of October and the rise to power of the Bolsheviks, he acknowledged the social meaning of the Leninist revolution. By means of a federalist League tried to combat the growing centralization of power, but in the spring the Organization was dissolved by the Government. During the following years, it failed to verify the persecution of the Soviet Government on the anarchist movement with discouragement. In June 1918 he moved to Dmitrov, a small town 60 kilometers from Moscow. He participated in the cultural and associative life of the place, and also in a campaign against the blockade of the Western powers and please send material aid to Russia. In late April 1919, Lenin expressed the desire to have an interview with Kropotkin, which was held in Moscow in the first half of may, and in which it discussed role of the State in the revolution. The anarchist intellectual agreed to inform the Bolshevik leader of everything what they consider unjust or irregular in the action of the Government (such as the taking of hostages to protect them from the violence of his adversaries), although not that Lenin paid too much attention to its recommendations. Soon after, the people's Commissariat for education offered 250,000 rubles to the edition of his complete works, but once more Kropotkin rejected the official donation. At the beginning of 1920 it was visited by the Spanish trade unionist Ángel tab, who criticized the Bolshevik revolutionary methods, and continued advocating a decentralized State. In the summer of 1920 he appealed to the international proletariat to make it same forced their Governments to give up the idea of the armed intervention in Russia.

Kropotkin spent the rest of his life to write; in mid-January 1921 he contracted pneumonia, and died on 8 February. His body was exposed for three days at the Palacio for the work in Moscow, and moved in procession by 100,000 people to the monastery of Novo-Devichi, where he was buried.

Kropotkin anarchism due to much both to roussonianas social theories and the French 19th century utopianism and the Russian populist movement. He preached egalitarianism and social justice, but at the same time he defended the freedom of the individual against all authority and for a social ethic based on the notion of mutual aid concept that comes from the Darwinian zoology and Kropotkin became the Foundation of human society. His anarchism was a conception of the world founded on a mechanical interpretation of the phenomena that comprises the totality of nature and the life of human societies. His main works were: words of a rebel (1885, Russian translation in 1906), the conquest of bread (1888, Russian translation in 1902), mutual assistance (1892), the great revolution (1893-1909, Russian translation of 1914, after 25 years of study), the anarchy, philosophy, its ideal (1896, Russian translation in 1900), memoirs of a revolutionary (1899), modern science, and anarchism (1913, 1918 Russian translation)The ideals and reality in Russian literature, the moral anarchist and mutual aid: a factor of evolution. Anarchy in Socialist evolution (1896).

Work

Young people, Valencia: Ediciones studies, s.a. words of a rebel, Barcelona: Maucci, s.a. memoirs of a revolutionary (translated from English by Fermín Salvochea), Madrid: B. Rodríguez Sierra, editor, s.a. The prisons. The moral anarchist (translation of Nicolás Tasin), Madrid: Júcar, 1977. Fields, factories and workshops, Madrid: Júcar, 1978. Modern science and anarchism (foreword and translation from English by Ricardo Mella), Valencia: F. Sempere y Compañía, s.a. Terror in Russia (translation of Eusebio Amo), Valencia: F. Sempere y Compañía, s.a. The great revolution (1789-1793) (Spanish version of Anselmo Lorenzo), Barcelona: Imprenta Elzeviriana, s.a. Ideals and reality in Russian literature (translation of Salomon Resnick), Buenos Aires: M. Gleizer, 1926. Anarchism exposed by Piotr Alekseevich Kropotkin (collection and Edmundo González-Blanco instruction), Madrid: Imprenta of Galo Sáez, 1931. Law and authority, Barcelona: Tierra y Libertad, 1936. Justice and morality. The moral anarchist, Barcelona: Tierra y Libertad, 1938. Pages of the history of the French Revolution, Toulouse: free pages, s.a. Two letters of Kropotkin (translation and introduction by Alain Vieillard-Baron), San José de Costa Rica: City University, 1960. Ethics: origin and evolution of morality (Translation by Adrián Zuloaga), Madrid: Binder books, 1977. Revolutionary pamphlets (Edition, introduction and notes by Roger N. Baldwin), Barcelona: Tusquets, 1977. Revolutionary pamphlets (Edition and translation of José Álvarez Junco), Madrid: Ayuso, 1977. Works (edited by Martín Zemliak), Barcelona: Anagrama, 1977. The thought of Pedro Kropotkin (selection, preface and notes of B. Cano Ruiz), Mexico, D.F.: Editores Mexicanos Unidos, 1978. The moral anarchist (prologue by Carlos Díaz), Madrid: Júcar, 1978. Mutual aid: a factor of evolution (introduction of Carlos Díaz, 2nd ed.), Bilbao: Zero, 1978. The State and its historical role, Villaverde Alto: Fundación Anselmo Lorenzo, 1995. The conquest of bread, Madrid: Christian Cultural Movement, 1998.

Related topics

Anarchism.

Spanish anarchism.

Bibliography

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E González Calleja