Biography of Astrid Lindgren (1907-2002)

Swedish storyteller, born in Vimmerby (in Kalmar county, in the historical region of Småland) on November 14, 1907, and died in Dalagaoan (Stockholm) on January 28, 2002. Although his real name was Astrid Anne Emilia Ericsson, he/she signed his works with the literary pseudonym of "Astrid Lindgren". Author of a lucid, bright and refreshing production story and novel that explores with unusual vigor in the complex genre of children's literature to release it from its secular topics moralizing, is universally known for the creation of one of the most jovial, disrespectful and transgressors of fiction for young readers: the girl Pippi Laangstrump (known in Castilian versions as "Pippi Calzaslargas"). Candidate on several occasions to the prize Nobel of literature - award that never receive-, the Swedish Academy acknowledged, however, the value of their work with the following statement: "If the children of the world have their own Republic, Astrid Lindgren would be its cult figure".

Apparently late writer, his name is not circulated by the literary gossip of his native Sweden until the mid 1940s, when, with thirty-eight years of age, got a Publisher to publish your first story about this rebellious girl who shocked many critics and regular readers of children's gender. But since his childhood he/she had felt a marked inclination towards the cultivation of literature, soon fueled the enjoyable and varied traditional stories that used to listen in the kitchen of the farm that raised, located in the wooded and swampy region of southern Sweden where--said later the own author - children lived a happy childhood in full communion with nature and its cyclesfishing in autumn, skating in winter on the frozen surfaces of rivers and lakes, and playing tirelessly by the forests in spring and summer.

Dumped by those first bars of your life in those games and his aforementioned love of stories, the little Astrid was pleasantly surprised their teachers by lit and sparkling imagination that displayed in their school newsrooms, so it soon acquired a modest literary reputation in your local environment and got, even publishing some of her new narratives in his home town newspaper. However, other obligations of life soon forced her to not take too seriously this literary ability. This was especially evident when, at eighteen years of age, decided to settle on their own in the big city of Stockholm, where was you need to look for any job that would allow them to survive in their new residence. It was as well as started working in an office and forgot almost out of his narrative hobbies, acuciada other concerns as the push forward to the daughter who had no have contracted marriage.

But the coincidences of life wanted to these maternal obligations which initially had strayed it of literary creation were, precisely, in charge of return to Astrid Lindgren to the artistic activity, since as a result of a long illness of her daughter he/she was impelled to invent numerous stories to entertain the little and relieve its tedious convalescence. He/She emerged, then, from the purest sources of the traditional narrative (oral tradition and the desire to entertain an audience) figure - soon universal - Pippi Laangstrump, a girl of nine years (the age which, at the time, was the daughter of the writer) which, in its radical exercise of freedom, continuously despises the world of adults and reveals the painful contradictions that make it. The girl boasts constantly overflowing fantasy that allows you to fight, from the rich and magical imaginary field, the pathetic Wiles of empecinados grotesque characters in submitted to social norms and control its inventive potential avasallador (reinforced, Furthermore, by them to supernatural that Pippi has, notably his superhuman strength). Since his daring and libérrimo external appearance, in which Marvel alike their long braids redheads as its colorful and shabbier clothing. Pippi takes half broken climbing you beyond knees and a few oversized shoes of man. In addition the girl announces to people around you that the fact of living without parents allows it to meet day-to-day obligations at will that affect the rest of the children of their age (as bedtime early or eat the dishes that don't like), but also - and this is what greater scandal caused between the first readers of his adventures - to bypass other duties of greater relevance than the Bullfighter, until then, never had put into question none of the authors most transgressors of children's literature: as, v. gr., attend school, activity expressly rejecting the powerful and imaginative girl, calling attention to the obsolete and outdated methods of traditional education and its jovial unconsciousness, claiming pass the right of minors to be treated with absolute respect for their individuality.

It is not surprising that the uncontrolled experiences and this little orphan's mother who lives with his inseparable pets - monkey Mr. Nilson's radical views and horse small uncle - in a vast property (and that, to further enhance its freedom of action, it is immensely rich), caused the indignation of the sectors more conservatives of mid-20th-century Swedish society. They saw in Pippi Calzaslargas - and books, especially in the immediate success that harvested among young readers--a serious threat against financial institutions (school, v. gr.), against the authority of the parents (and, in general, adults) and, ultimately, against the moral behaviour that traditionally had been instilling in children. But universal favour granted by the public child and youth from around the world to the adventures of this rebellious and powerful girl was stronger than these severe criticisms, so the Swedish author was adding to his first delivery (Pippi Calzaslargas, 1945) other many stories that had small heroin as the protagonist. Thus, became cycling about Pippi Laangstrump integrated, to ultimately by more than thirty titles, which in total have been sold around the world, more than one hundred and twenty million copies. Some of the most relevant titles of this series are Pippi on the high seas; Pippi in the South seas; Pippi, the world's strongest girl; Pippi solves it all; Pippi doesn't grow; Pippi organizes a party; Pippi is installed; Pippi is shipped and a adventure of Pippi.

In Spain, the first publisher who presented in Castilian language the adventures of the merry, disrespectful and kindly Pippi Calzaslargas was youth, seal which subsequently spread throughout the Iberian Peninsula other children's stories of Astrid Lindgren, in which the author lowered considerably its transgressive message without giving up to the ideal that always regulated their relationship with the world of children: offer, by adults, devoid of unnecessary repressions training. Among these other youth and children's stories of the Swedish author, also highlights the cycle opened by the adventures of the mischievous Miguel, where presented to another of his world famous characters: small giving title in the work, so cheerful and active as its precursor Pippi, but much less subversive. According to then own writer, the literary character of this naughty boy - whose adventures unfold in the gentle early 20th century rural Sweden - was inspired by the real figure and the childhood memories of his father, Samuel Augustus. Series includes other deliveries as new adventures of Miguel Miguel the mischievous and again.

More tenderness and less daring than Miguel (not to mention that Pippi) exhibits another lucky literary creation of Astrid Lindgren, the loving girl Lisa, who starred in another successful series of narrations of the Swedish author: Bullerbyn children trilogy. Other works are the ACE of detectives (1946) - a detective thriller for children; Kati in Paris (1953) - where the daring Swedish writer returns to break out of any moral temptation, to then add new titles of the same series, as Kati in America and Kati in Italy; Mine, small mine (1954); VIC the victorious (1955); Rasmus and the tramp (1956); Zozo Twister (1963); The brothers Corazón de León (1973) - where Astrid Lindgren dares to confront the painful theme of death, an issue that tends to be avoided by child fiction and youth; and Ronja, the daughter of the Bandit (1984), - which also deals with the themes of the severity and tolerance, with the eternal problems of happiness and sadness, love and death, war and peace and, above all, the need to create a better future.

In General, child and juvenile narrative of Astrid Lindgren presents, from the first and dream irruption of Pippi Calzaslargas, a constant Association of two opposing universes (the everyday and real, from the dreamlike and fantastic), from the original perspectives of its best shaped characters, usually appear confused each other, either by the procedure to transform the routine life on a never-ending and passionate adventure (as does continuous freckled and anarchic "Mr. Nilson" owner) and "Small guy"), already by the method of position from the outset the reader in a mythical world where permanent succession of fantastic events is creating a kind of magical daily life.

Translated into more than 70 languages, works by Astrid Lindgren not only have captivated readers of all ages in many countries of the world, but also a massive legion of spectators who have been able to follow the adventures of his characters through the versions made for the film and the small screen. The British director Ken Annakinpremiered at the end of the 1980s, the film entitled The New Adventures of Pippi Longstockins (the new adventures of Pippi Calzaslargas, 1988), based on the novel by Swedish writer. But fame and global recognition already had relapsed on Astrid Lindgren a few years earlier, following the premiere of the acclaimed television series which reached maximum quotas of audience in different countries around the world. These include Spain, where the adventures of Pippi was so celebrated that they arrived to promote the invitation of Astrid Lindgren to Barcelona, for it held there different encounters with many readers and viewers of their stories.

Astrid Lindgren also wrote plays and poetry books, although in none of these genres of critical and commercial successes with its more than seventy narrations, which still include - in addition to the qualifications referred to in previous paragraphs - it reached Kalsson of the roof; Detective Blomkvist; Mira, Madita, is snowing! -part of another narrative cycle in which also include Madita and Madita and Lisabet-; The totem; Holiday in Saltkrakan; Go rampage!; I also want to go to school; and I also want to have brothers. Special interest is also of his book of memoirs titled my lost world (published in Spain in 1991), which offers many details about her childhood and, in particular, about the discovery of his passion for literature ("think in life there is a time in which is read with so much passion and delivery! [...] Oh, Huck Finn! Perhaps my slow Mississippi trip down on the raft belonging to Huckleberry Finn, I remember with greatest intensity").

With respect to the fame that Astrid Lindgren came to enjoy inside and outside the Swedish borders, should begin by remembering that, although it never came to be awarded the Nobel Prize for which was nominated on several occasions (perhaps by his consecration to a genre had retail among more traditionalist critics), if obtained, on the other hand, in 1980 the so-called '' alternative Nobel ''. This award is a prestigious award created by the philanthropist Jacob von Uesxkull that, in the figure and the work of the Swedish author, came to recognize its courageous "defense of the right of children" to be educated with love and respect for their individuality, as well as their commitment to other universal values such as justice and the protection of natural areas. Their compatriots, who had included it among the celebrities of the contemporary Swedish letters, created in 1989 a beautiful theme park based on the characters and adventures, invented by the author of Vimmerby, and eight years later put the name of Astrid Lindgren to a children's hospital in Stockholm. To these signs of affection to his person and thanks to his work, it is not surprising that the death of the creator of Pippi Calzaslargas, occurring when only five years was missing to reach the hundred years of age, cause a real commotion in the Scandinavian country. Thus, the door of the House in which he/she lived was filled with flowers and candles that lamenting its demise, and the King himself Carlos Gustavo of Sweden, followed by the Prime Minister Göran Persson, made public their respective testimonies of mourning.