Biography of Adolf Loos (1870-1933)

Viennese architect, born in 1870 in Brünn (Austria) and died in Kalksburg near Vienna. Artisan father and mother bourgeois, the workshop and the teachings of his father would be a decisive reminder during the course of his career. He studied at the professional school in Reichenberg (Austria) and Dresden University of technology, and completed his training during his stay in the United States (1893-1896) on the occasion of the world Columbian Exposition in Chicago and his travels to Paris and London. The Viennese secession opponent, came to oppose art and utility, putting architecture in the field of mere utility. He criticized all kinds of ornamentation; his biggest concern was the man provide a really modern life, a Western culture common to all, no differences. The magazine Das Andere, which he founded in 1903, was a reflection on all of these problems and a new procedure of composition, the Raumplan, refuge of the humanism in the architecture: each part of the House must be the most timely height within the volume of the building, regardless of the height of the adjacent environments. Thus Loos discovers the concrete space, where life unfolds.

Worked as a designer of furniture for the famous F.O.Schmidt company and his first important Commission consisted of furnishing a room in the Kohlmarkt in Vienna (1897), the first of a series of orders of this type. His first home, the villa Karma in Switzerland (1903), of clear influence of Otto Koloman Wagner, then showed a certain predisposition to the traditional volumetric determinations of great corporeality. One of his most important works, the House on Michaelerplatz (1910), together with House Steiner (1910), stands out for the total elimination of any non-structural element. The House on the Michaelerplatz had at its top a simple facade without decoration, who refused to accept the authorities in Vienna. In 1912, he founded his own school of construction, which had to close its doors during the first world war. The House Scheu (1912) belongs to this period. He was appointed Chief Architect of the city of Vienna in 1920 and after return commissioned the construction of a collective for not being in accordance with its principles of social housing, moved to Paris, where the Tzara house built in 1926. In recent years he returned to his homeland and built several projects of maximum perfection: the Moller in Vienna (1928), the House Müller in Prague (1930) and the House Khuner in Payerbach (1930), consolidating itself as an important teacher of safe influence in the architecture of Gropius, Oud, Le Corbusier and other masters of the postwar.

Bibliography

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GRAVAGNUOLO, b.-Adolf Loos. Rizzoli international publications, INC. USA, 1988.

GRAVAGNUOLO, b.-Adolf Loos: theory and works. Madrid, 1988.

HERNÁNDEZ LEÓN, J.M.-the House of a single wall: domestic architecture of Adolf Loos. Madrid, 1990.

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CHILD, K-Adolf Loos. Artemis Verlags-AG, Zurich, 1994.

LOOS, ADOLF - in vacuum 1897-1900. Paris, Georges Crès, 1921.

PIZZA, a.-Adolf Loos. Barcelona, 1989.