Biography of Francisco López Ballesteros (1770-1833)

General and Spanish politician born in Brea (Zaragoza) in 1770 and died in Paris in 1833.

He studied in Zaragoza, then being Cadet and officer in the first battalion of volunteers of Aragon, he joined a regiment of Catalan. As a result of a challenge he was gravely wounded in the right arm, which did not prevent him being captain in the regiment of Cazadores de Barbastro, campaigning Portugal in 1801. He went to Madrid to heal the arm, and obtained the removal and the headquarters of the receipt of Ávila.

The war of independence will provide an unmatched opportunity. Visitor's income, he is proud to have been the first to go to the patriotic appeal, no doubt thing. He went to Oviedo, found himself in Madrid on 2 may, returned to Asturias, Board whose amounted him slammed the use of field-marshal. There is in this case a social nuance which must be retained: September 25, 1808 in Oviedo had great disgust and concern people against the authorities, since it had been the species that the Board wanted to overturn a provision of 1785 which protects settlers in the possession of the leased goods; and although the species was already denied that the 26 named 29 a repressive Executive Court, which also acquired a force for "punishment soon, exemplary and military", which went to Ballesteros. This first fought in Asturias, and then interned in Castile and Andalusia, fighting in Santander, la Albuera, Ayamonte, County of mist and Bornos, being the Granada.Una release proclaims, in the Cuartel general de la Higuera, October 10, 1810, he was published in the mercantile Journal of Cadiz, of October 31, 1810. A part his aimed at the Junta of Seville, Sanlucar de Guadiana 25 January 1811, appeared in the extraordinary Gazette of Cadiz, number 4, February 9, 1811. This same year, January 25, had won the battle of Los Castillejos, who is exalted by the concise, number 20, of February 10, 1811, where he plays a fragment of the part of Ballesteros.

Promoted to lieutenant general in 1811. He is said that it is "the general of the revolution", and while acknowledging its hardness, is praises his energy (Curt, number 17, on the 17 April 1811). His proclamation "to the peoples of the Sierra and County of fog", glorious field of la Albuera to May 18, 1811, in the Curt, number 3, June 3, 1811, and aimed "to the soldiers of his command", in fair may 25, 1811, also appeared in the concise, number 5, June 5, 1811 ("my satisfactions and my glory are yours"). Fragments of a letter, dated in fair 23 May 1811, addressed to Francisco Velarde, informing him of the death of his brother Emeterio, in the Curt, number 31, May 31, 1811. Meanwhile, Jimena Campos, dated September 25, 1811, where he communicates his victory in San Roque, in the Curt, of the 1 October 1811. He is directed "to the noble inhabitants of Andalusia" by appealing to their patriotism so that the meeting of deserters and dispersed (Curt, 12 November 1811). One proclaims to his soldiers, in Bornos November 8, 1811 (Curt, 17 November 1811). At this time they pick up effects for it, in Cadiz, Manuel de Torrontegui (various) and Diego Méndez (Cassius).

He was about to be taken prisoner or dead in the sale of Ojen (Málaga), where only escaped to a horse. In a letter addressed to the Governor of Gibraltar, dated December 18, 1811, in Los Barrios transforms your risk of death, which recognizes, in victoria. The concise 29 December 1811 publishes a fragment of the letter. His proclamation "Serranos and beloved countrymen", given at the headquarters of Casares to 22 January 1812, is published in the trade journal of Cadiz, number 30, on 30 January 1812: exalts in the discipline and instruction of the serranos in Ceuta, says it will be inflexible with regard to desertion, and asked blind obedience to ordersby soldiers but also members of their families.The French general baron Maransin denounces in Malaga on March 6, 1812 its barbaric methods to recruit young people, who in large numbers have been brought to the insurrection, thus breaking peoples what Maransin calls his Covenant of peace and civilization with the French.

General in Chief of the Fourth Army, in a dated part in Prado del Rey to August 26, 1812, communicates the occupation of round and Villamartin (Cadiz, on August 31, 1812 mercantile daily). For his ideas of inflexibility is accused of having given a proclamation in Granada on September 18, 1812, which says that the death penalty will apply to deserters and dispersed, and if they were not incurred, will be their parents, and confiscated their property.

On October 24, 1812, directed representation to the Minister of war, rejected the appointment of Wellington to general in Chief of the Spanish armies, which earned him to be immediately dismissed and confined in Ceuta; but a great deal of discussion among Spanish intellectual elements, among them earned him also the accession of Romero Alpuente, Muñoz Brook and others, who saw his conduct a defense of the national independence, which was fighting throughout the country.

Their representations met several editions, and were also reflected in the newspapers of the time. First it is said that there were thousands of copies, printed in Granada and reprinted in Cádiz (Palau does not cite those of Granada). Five of them realizes in the editor, number 629, of May 5, 1813, the first two in Granada, on 30 October, another in Antequera, on 10 November, and the last in Ceuta, dated December 10.Riaño also cites a few respectful D. Francisco Ballesteros disclaimers dated in Algeciras in 1813 (the text probably is the fifth representation). Only Ballesteros underwent from the fourth representation.It is said that on 30 October in Granada he harangued the crowd, saying: "Vmds. know my crime is to oppose that my nation is subjected to England, as happens to the Portugal". The living were repeated on day 31, including Viva General Ballesteros, the Blessed Virgin remove with well, what did you get excited. The Patriot, which gives these news, defined thus: "his sobriety, his selflessness, their surveillance, its universal and characteristic llaneza, her impetuous boldness in riskier trances, and his tireless in taking care of footwear, apparel and food care you were idolizing soldier. Its system of war, which is the perpetual motion, is the only true, and more fighting against French. Not the sphere of a recommended mediocrity leave their lights and their talent. "Prosperity, or rather the reputation, has gone crazy it, and his recklessness has precipitated him in terms that it is not easy to regain his enlightened predicament". The Regency issued a manifesto on the issue, which argued that no choice but, not had been given the constant disobedience of the person concerned.Against appeared the reflections of a Spanish soldier about the conduct of the general Ballesteros, which realizes in the same number of editor, "a Madrid Patriot: notice to the simple, but considered, village Vallesteros, Spanish (waiting for their patriotism that repair the evil that has done) and Wellington (an Aragonese regrets the conduct of his countryman), scandalous conduct of general Ballesteros" (Cadiz and Madrid1812) and the sword of Justice against the mutineers on the occasion of the disobedience of General Ballesteros, who recommended the observance of laws, announced in the Patriot, number 23, on September 8, 1813. Also appeared Vallesteros (monologue), poetic composition about the affects of the general, who confesses to his crime, and hopes to be forgiven. Position taking will lead to real families of brochures, pro and cons: Patriot Andaluz, i.e. Molle: Vallesteros (against a foreigner be Generalissimo, praises the military talent of Ballesteros), "F.R.D.I": article in the Gazeta de Santiago, in November 1812, reproduction in Cadiz in 1813, (against the appointment of Wellington)The true Spanish: "Response to the paper entitled Vallesteros" (praises Ballesteros, but Wellington is necessary. Patriotism requires union, subordination and order), cordovan citizen R.G.: "Vallesteros: contested challenger", in Cadiz, 1812, (against the Andalusian Patriot), Canary Island Patriot: "Vallesteros. Response to the reflections of the cordovan citizen against the Andalusian Patriot"(in favour of it). Romero Alpuente brochure Wellington in Spain and Ballesteros in Ceuta, is titled 1813. Pedro Muñoz Brook: Vallesteros. Anselmo Torrejón's letters to his friend Fabricio Núñez (Málaga, 1813). A bi-weekly newspaper was titled friends Vallesteros (Isla de León, 1813), against the person concerned. His portrait appears on the Chinese shadows, grasses fires, of the theatre of the balloon, Cadiz, on December 26, 1813, and his name was exalted in the famous the Terror of the French comedy and defender of the Andalusia Don Francisco Vallesteros, (Seville, 1814), that the constitutional, in Madrid from April 6, 1820, to believe that the author is the own generalit qualifies as "foolish, indecent and apricot".

In en 1815 1815 Fernando VII appointed him Minister de Guerra and gave him the Grand Cross of San Fernando, but, being wary of it dismissed him and sent exiled to Valladolid. In 1820, he was called to the Court. General in Chief of the army of the Centre, on 7 March 1820, and Vice President of the provisional board, on March 9, 1820, was decorated with the Grand Cross of Carlos III, on July 9, 1820. inspector General of militia until his appointment of Minister of State and aide-de-camp of S.M. (1821-1823).

In the new French invasion of 1823 the Government entrusted him with the defence, but he decided to capitulate before the general Molitor, ignoring irrigation that invited you to do his duty. Included in the sentences to death the King, again absolutist, lavished he resided however in El Puerto de Santa María without being bothered; but in 1824, after the Amnesty Decree, was order to stop him, so he decided to go to the French authorities. In June 1824 was given a passport to France, leaving Spain in an English ship. After he settled in Paris, where he received a pension of 12,000 francs per year.

Bibliography

Alvarez VALDES, Ramon: Memories of the uprising in Asturias in 1808. Biographical news of the author by Max strong Acevedo. Oviedo, 1889.

The friends of Vallesteros", at the national library.

Archivo Histórico Nacional. State, file 61 s, 378-381.

BALLESTEROS: Collection of all representations to the Government... Cordoba, 1813. Five in total.

The concise, n. 20, February 10, 1811, n. 17, April 17, 1811, n. 31, May 31, 1811, ns. 3 and 5, 3 and 5 June 1811, October 1, 1811, 12, 17 and 20 of November of 1811, 29 December 1811.

Commercial newspaper of Cádiz, 31 October 1810, n. 30, January 30, 1812, on August 31, 1812.

GIL NOVALES, Alberto: The patriotic societies. Madrid: Tecnos, 1975.

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List of men, heroic and distinguished, eminent clarified, illustrious and distinguished that have helped restore the constitutional system; or reply to the catalogue of our glorious revolution heroes. Madrid, 1822.

MOYA and JIMENEZ, Francisco and King JOLY, Celestino: Army and Navy in the Cortes of Cadiz. Cadiz, 1913. Manuscript.

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PALAU and DULCET, Antonio: Manual of Hispanic bookseller. 2nd ed. Barcelona, 1948-1977.

Editor, 629, 5 May 1813 n., n. 495, 498, supl. the 853 and 925, 21 and 28 October 1812-15 October, n. 532, November 27, 1812, and 26 December 1813.

Story of the general González de Mechana over the army of Ballesteros in 1823', in the Blake Archive.

RIAÑO, Camilo: The Lieutenant General Don Antonio Nariño. Bogotá, 1973.

ROMERO ALPUENTE, Juan: Speech on the Supreme Board Central of conspirators against the constitutional system and about the legal and moral responsibility of Ministers. Madrid, 1821, reimp. Barcelona, 1821.

A GIL NOVALES.