Biography of Emperador de Occidente Lotario I (795-855)

Emperor of West born in 795 and died at the Abbey of Prüm from September 29, 855. Successor Luispious one, inherited from him a low territory and during his rule the imperial title was devalued and you were emphasizing the peculiarities of the future kingdoms of France and Germany. He/She was brother of Pepin of Aquitaine, Luis the Germanic, and Carlos Calvo.

He was the firstborn son of the Emperor of Occidente Luis the pious and Ermengarde, daughter of Earl Ingram Empress. When Luis the pious assumed power in the Empire, in 814, after the death of Charlemagne, Lorario received the Government of Bavaria, while his brother Pepin obtained from Aquitaine, both territories were those who had greater independence with respect to the Empire, so Luis separated them as kingdoms, although with a direct dependency of the emperor. Given the youth and inexperience of lothario, Luis commissioned Royal officers that they had United on behalf of his son. Three years later, after the Division of the Empire, Lothair shared dignity with his brothers.

Improved relations between the papacy and the Empire after the death of Pope Leo III (816). His successor, Stephen IV, to Luis the pious recognized the role of protector of the Papacy, which implied the right of the emperor to dispose of the Government of Italy. By virtue of this, Luis sent his son Lothaire to Italy in 817 with a mission to govern the country. That same year was the Ordinatio Imperii, which recognized only Lothair heir to the Empire and Bavaria was delivered to Luis the German, his younger brother; Although Luis and his other brother Pipino should subordinate its power to the emperor. The coronation as Emperor of lothario in the hands of the Pope I Pascual (823) meant a guarantee of imperial control over Italy. Lothair began to appear mentioned as Emperor in diplomas, from 825, date in which returned from Italy. In 829, Luis the pious, issued an edict that his younger son, Carlos (later known as Carlos Calvo) would participate inheritance of the Empire, contravening the Division set at 817; Carlos was named Duke of Burgundy and was a part of Germany, Alsace, territories which had belonged to Lothair in the previous deal. It seems likely that the Mission for which Luis sent to Lothaire to Italy in 829 responded primarily to the need to remove him from the Court, given his resentment; In addition, since he/she stopped appear mentioned as Emperor in the documentation. The meeting in Lyon between Lothair and Pepin should involve an agreement that materialized in a revolt in 830 against his own father, who upset in depth the whole of the Kingdom, as Frank aristocracy joined the revolt, trying to combat powers against imperial dignity cutout.

Luis the pious met with the rebels at Compiègne and returned to lothario as coemperador position; father and son are reconciled in a new Assembly in Nijmegen (October of 830), but a year later, in the Assembly of Aachen, Luis the pious gained advantage and got lothario will return to Italy with the order not to leave her. In 833 children of Emperor allied themselves in defense of 817 agreements and disseminated a manifesto by Agobard of Lyon. The army of the Emperor met with the rebels on the so-called field of lies, but Luis was abandoned by his supporters and captured by Lothair, together with the Empress Judith and his son Carlos (the bald). Lothario became the owner of the Kingdom, while his brothers looked to improve its part. Lothair took with him to Luis the pious to Soissons, where forced to do public penance, decreed the exile of Judith in Italy and the young Carlos in the monastery of Prüm. But the humiliating treatment that lothario kept his father in prison for ten months, made his brothers to set aside from it and organised the rescue of Luis the pious, who was spare on the imperial throne 1 March 834, while lothario was forced to flee and take refuge in Blois. An expedition was launched against Lothair, who was captured (no fight) and sent to Italy, with those of his supporters who wished to follow him.

Lothario fortified the Alpine passes before the announcement of a trip to Italy of the emperor. In 837 Luis the pious went one step further to ensure the inheritance of his youngest son to give Carlos the territories between the Meuse and the Seine, which had belonged to Lothair. In 838, after the death of Pepin, the Emperor Carlos gave his son the Aquitaine, without respecting rights of inheritance of the son of the late, Pepin II. For these reasons, Luis the German went back into talks with lothario to rebel against the emperor. However, it seems that during his exile in Italy, Lothair had remained faithful to his father; Perhaps for this reason, the new deal did Luis the pious in Worms in 839, involved lothario and Carlos, but not Luis the Germanic. Lothair receiving Italy, the lands East of the Meuse, the Saône and the Rhône; Luis retained Bavaria, but with cuts made in favour of Carlos; This earned the Western territory of Empire and Provence.

The death of Luis the pious (June 840) lothario returned from Italy and tried to monetize its position of advantage, voiding the agreements of 839. He/She began maneuvers to isolate his brothers, threatening the faithful with the deprivation of his honours if not breaking their oath of allegiance and allied with Pepin II of Aquitaine, whose rights had been violated in the distribution of 839. Its objectives were the revitalization of the imperial dignity, postponed in Worms and control of the territories between the Seine and the Rhine, which constituted the main resources of the dynasty. All this brought the Alliance against Lothair of Carlos el Calvo and Luis the German, who defeated the armies of his brother in the bloody battle of Fontenay (25 June 841), near Auxerre. But the lothario defeat did not mean their elimination. This continued threatening the Kingdom of Carlos, what motivated the meeting of Carlos and Luis in Strasbourg (842), in which they swore mutual Alliance against Lothair. The fortress that gave them this Alliance forced lothario to negotiate.

The three brothers met at Verdun August 10, 843 to carry out an equitable distribution of the Kingdom, with a Committee of experts, which settle the distribution of the Bishoprics, monasteries, the tax authorities and the lands and cities Carolingian. Lothair retained the imperial title and gained East Frisia, the lands of the Meuse until the Scheldt, Provence, Italy and a part of Burgundy. Carlos received the Territories West of the line joining the rivers Scheldt, Meuse and Rhone, and the Aquitaine. Luis ruled in the eastern lands of the Rhine and North of the Alps. Lothario portion included the two Imperial capitals, Rome, and Aachen, but the imperial title not guaranteed superiority over his brothers, but, rather, a merely nominal Lordship. During the following years the efforts of lothario headed to secure his position in the Middle Kingdom (located between the other two), avoid siblings determing is against it, and try to ensure superiority over them. Lothario used to all this, the collaboration of the Church; apparently to his prayers, the Pope Sergio II appointed Drogo, Archbishop of Metz, as Apostolic Vicar for the Germania and Gaul, with the power to convene councils and synods in the three kingdoms; However, the franc episcopate never recognized his prerogatives. Lothario stressed trying to get the designation of his protégé, Ebbo, Archbishop of Reims, but was instead named Hincmaro, faithful to the cause of Carlos Calvo.

During the last years of life of lothario, Carlos was consolidating his Kingdom, while the Normans plundered the coasts of the North Sea and the Arabs invaded the Italian provinces. Twice he/she met with Carlos and Valenciennes in Liège, to ensure the peaceful possession of their respective kingdoms for themselves and their heirs. Weak and ill, he/she retired to the monastery of Prüm (September 22, 850), in the Eifel, where he/she was admitted as a monk and where he/she died.

From his marriage to Ermengarde of Tours (821) had three sons, among which was divided his Kingdom after his death: Luis II, the eldest son, received the imperial title and the Kingdom of Italy; Lothair II the territories between Friesland and the Jura, which received his name (Lotharingia or Lorraine); Carlos, the youngest, inherited Provence and Burgundy. Lothario and Ermengarde had also three daughters: Berta of Avenay, Rotilde and another of unknown name, who married the count of Maasgau.

Bibliography

FICHTENAU, H. The Carolingian Empire. Toronto, 1978.

HALPHEN, L. Charlemagne and the Carolingian Empire. Madrid, 1992.

ISLA FREZ, TO. The Europe of the Carolingians. Madrid, synthesis, 1993.

MCKITTERICK, r.. The Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians. London, 1983.

PERROY. Monde le carolingien. Paris, 1974.

JMMT

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