Biography of King of Germania Luis II (806-876)

Noble franc branch of the Carolingians, King of Germania, born in 806 and died in 876. Known as Bavaria Luis Luis the Germanic.

Son of Luis, the pious Emperor and his first wife, Ermengarde, Luis was grandson of Charlemagne and brother Lothair, Pepin and Carlos. In the Ordinatio Imperii of 817 Luis the pious decreed that the Empire would be hereditary and should be borne by the eldest son, in this case lothario, who also named King of Italy. Luis, as youngest son, received the Kingdom of Bavaria, and while was still a child, since his involvement in politics was very active. Pepin obtained in sharing the Kingdom of Aquitaine.

The second marriage of the emperor with Judith of Bavaria and the birth of another son, Carlos, provoked the rebellion of Lothair and the Alliance of Luis the pious with his other sons; In 829, he/she published an edict by which the Empire was divided in three equal parts for them. To Carlos, later called the bald, was the Kingdom of Burgundy, Alsace, while Luis expanding its Bavarian heritage with Austrasia, Thuringia, Saxony, Friesland, Flanders, Brabant, Hainaut and the Neustria North. The takeover of these territories only became effective after the death of the emperor. The creation of the Kingdom of Burgundy for Carlos was a violation of the Ordinatio Imperii and 833 in Bavaria Luis joined Lothair and Pepin against his father and Carlos Calvo. The victory of the brothers led to the dethronement of Luis, the pious and the takeover of the Kingdom by Lothair. However, abuse that this subjected to his father and his younger brother took Luis of Bavaria while Pepin to unite to rescue his father, who regained the throne 1 March 834. However, in 837 it took a new step to ensure the inheritance of his youngest son, granting the territories between Meuse and Seine, which had belonged to Lothair. A year later, after the death of Pepin of Aquitaine, the Emperor violated their wills and Carlos Calvo gave the Kingdom of Aquitaine. This made react to Luis the Germanic, again entered into talks with lothario to rebel against his father. However in the new deal of the Empire that the pious Luis he/she made in Worms in 839, Luis of Bavaria was excluded and their territory cut out in favour of Carlos.

In any case, Worms agreements were not respected, because the death of Luis the pious (June 840), lothario tried to impose on his brothers, in an attempt to revitalize the imperial dignity. This led to the union of Luis, the Germanic with Carlos the bald, whose armies defeated the emperor at the battle of Fontenay (25 June 841), which was not definitive. Therefore, in 842 Luis and Carlos met in Strasbourg and it swore mutual support against Lothair I, who finally agreed to negotiate. Lothario, Luis and Carlos met in Verdun (see Treaty of Verdun) 10 August 843 to carry out an equitable distribution of the Empire, aided by a Committee of experts. Luis received the Germanic countries, along with the counties of Worms, Speyer and Mainz, the country of the Alamanni and Reece; France was to Carlos Calvo, while Lothair retained the imperial title, East Frisia, Italy, Provence, a part of Burgundy and the lands between the Meuse and the Scheldt. The Church was as a safeguard of the "unity of the Christian people", being the depositary of the imperial unit. From this moment the three kings adopted the title of reges Francorum.

In addition to the struggles for the Division of the Empire of Charlemagne, Luis the German faced revolts in their States. In 842, you shut down a rebellion of the Saxon through a bloody crackdown and tried to increase the bonding of the nobles by granting privileges. In general it could control the uprisings of his Kingdom, but in 849 he/she was defeated by the bohemos. He/She also wanted to expand its heritage and seized almost all the Neustria, supported by some local noble. But the resistance of the peasants and the excommunications of the bishops made him give up their goals. Among 853 and 854 tried to take possession of Aquitaine, whose Crown had been offered by the noble revolt against Carlos el Calvo. Luis the Germanic sent his son, Luis III the younger, to support the revolt aquitani, but the emergence of Pepin II of Aquitaine (854) snatched the alliances and the possibility to take possession of Aquitaine, which however remained in the hands of Carlos Calvo. Meanwhile, in his Kingdom Saxony and Thuringia were areas under Royal control. To fix this, Luis developed a policy aimed at establishing links with the main families of those regions, policy which fits the marriage of his son Luis with Ricarda, daughter of the count of Ercharger (862). That same year revolted against his son Carloman, who had to give the two Austrians, Styria and Carinthia; However, Carloman remained in absentia and his father continued the war, making him prisoner, but being forced to cede the provinces on the other side the Inn when Carloman succeeded to escape. In 865 Luis the Germanic carried out the division of States between his sons and two years later negotiated secretly the succession of the imperial Crown to Lothair II. The Emperor died in 875 Luis II, son of Lotario I. Luis el Germánico sent their children against Carlos the bald, which began to negotiate with the Pope to receive the imperial Crown and could beat the children of Luis of Bavaria on all fronts, while the Pope Juan VIII showed himself more partisan of the King of France.

He died a year later, leaving three sons of his wife Emma: Carloman, he/she inherited Bavaria and the East mark; Luis III the younger, who remained as inheritance, Saxony, Thuringia and Franconia; and Carlos III the fat, heir of Swabia, Raetia and Alsace.

Bibliography

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ISLA FREZ, TO. The Europe of the Carolingians. Madrid, synthesis, 1993.

MCKITTERICK, r.. The Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians. London, 1983.

PERROY. Monde le carolingien. Paris, 1974.