Biography of King of Francia Luis XII (1462-1515)

French monarch, born 27 June 1462 in Blois and died January 1, 1515, son of Carlos, Duke of Orleans, and María de Cléveris. He/She was raised in the Court of Luis XI, which forced him to get married in 1473 with his daughter Juana, female morbid and deform. Duke of Orléans until 1498, occupied the throne of France between 1498 and 1515.

In 1483 when his father-in-law died and saw the ascent to the throne of the very young Carlos VIII, Luis became a part of the League of the great nobles of the realm against the new monarch and above all against the Regent Anne of France, in the so-called mad war. The uprising was defeated and Luis was taken prisoner at Saint-Aubin-du-Cormier in 1488. Three years later he/she was pardoned by Carlos VIII and placed at the service of the King in his expedition to Italy.

The war in Italy responded to the interests of Carlos in relation to the succession to the throne of Naples. Carlos started the campaign with the purchase of the neutrality of the rest of the European powers: Fernando el Católico returned Roussillon and Cerdagne; the Artois and Franche-Comté were for Austria; and he/she promised the sum of 745,000 gold crowns to Henry VIII of England .

In 1494 he/she occupied the Kingdom of Naples, but almost all the States of Italy joined against Carlos VIII, who was forced to return to France via the lines enemy and to leave his army in Italy. Three years later, it had on Italian territory any fittings which had left there, which were defeated one after the other.

Despite the disastrous Italian campaign, the popularity of the Duke of Orleans was beneficiary since he/she was able to appear before the people, not as a defeated general, but as a victim of the bad politics of the monarch.

When the 7 April 1498 died Carlos VIII, the Duke of Orleans presented himself as the best candidate for the succession. Luis acceded to the throne without encountering opposition and retained Ministers of his predecessor, even that more hostile had been with him.

His first act as monarch consisted of getting the Pope Alejandro VI the annulment of his marriage with Juana and marry the widow of Carlos VIII, Anne of Brittany. Through this marriage strengthened the ties between the Kingdom of France and the Duchy of Brittany, of which Ana was incumbent. To strengthen its power in France he/she made a series of reforms in the abolition of some taxes, regulated the privileges of the University of Paris, reformed the administration of Justice and officials of the State body, and created the parliaments of Provence and Normandy. Settled their power in France, he/she directed his efforts toward Italy and claimed his hereditary rights to the Duchy of Milan. Luis XII army planted the terror of deliberately by Italy and managed, with the help of the Borgia, expel Ludovico Sforza of Milan in the summer of 1499, but Ludovico was able to rebuild and restore the city in the following winter.

After the fiasco in Milan, he/she directed its efforts toward ancient claims of Carlos VIII on Naples, to this end, he/she signed with Fernando el Católico in 1500 the Granada Treaty, by which two monarchs divided Naples into two areas of influence and conquest. The following year came the conquest of Naples by both powers, but the agreement was short-lived, since in 1502 the two Kings held the war due to disagreements between the borders of their territories in Naples. In 1504 the Castilian troops of the Great Captain managed to expel the French from Luis XII of Naples, which became part of the domains of the Catholic King.

Despite the successive defeats in Italy, Luis XII achieved thanks to diplomacy that the strength of their weapons had failed. Between 1504 and 1512 Luis XII signed a series of treaties with Austria and Spain, Blois instigated by Ana of Britain, by which the Emperor Maximiliano I recognized Luis as the legitimate heir of the Duchy of Milan in Exchange for 200,000 pounds; It also signed an Alliance military with Maximiliano against Venice and finally agreed to the marriage between Carlos (see Carlos I, King of Spain and Germany V Emperor), son of Felipe the beautiful one and Joanna of Castile, with the Princess Claudia, daughter of the French monarch, which would bring to the marriage the Duchy of Burgundy, Brittany, the Artois and the County of Blois. Given the possibility that these territories, consummate the marriage and having possible inheritance of Prince Carlos, were alienated from French territory, the same representatives demanded that the monarch the rupture of this commitment and delivery of Claudia Francisco of Angoulême, the future King Francisco I. Luis XII, to ingratiate himself with Fernando II ceded all rights to Naples through this marriage to Germaine of Foix.

In the meantime, Luis crossed with his army the Alps to deal with a revolt in Genoa. In Italy he/she made contact with Fernando the Catholic and Maximiliano I; the three were Cambrises League in 1508, which were divided among the Venetian territory between them and the Pope Julius II. The League had a short life because of disagreements among the signatories and the lack of resources of the emperor to carry out the conquest of Venice. Slowly he/she was undoing, until the final rupture and the signing between Fernando II, Julio II, Henry VIII and the city of Venice from a Holy League in 1511 against France and Maximiliano I. This was a disaster for the interests of the French in Italy, since Luis XII was threatened by England and Castile in its own borders, and by the successive defeats on Italian soil which led to Luis to evacuate the Milan. In 1514, was signed the peace by which the French sovereign had to recognize the annexation of Navarre to Castile and renounce the Milan. A year earlier, France had signed the shameful Treaty of Dijon with Swiss. In 1514 Luis XII signed a series of three treaties with Enrique VIII, in London, in virtue of which the French King was married to María, sister of the King of England, at the time who signed the peace and the withdrawal of the English armies of the French soil.

The defeat against the Holy League had a special meaning, since in the course of the war Gastón de Foix, the best of the French generals of the time, was injured from death after winning a surprising victory in 1512 in Ravenna. His death led to Gastón rights to the throne of Navarre passed directly to their sister Germana. Also was cause of this war excision of the papal in France power as retaliation to the support that Julio II gave his enemies, Luis XII denied his obedience.

In France, Luis XII became very popular due to its reform work and good administration, despite their defeats on the outside. This popularity led him to be acclaimed in the meeting of the States-General at Tours of 1506 as the father of the people, title it that went down in history. On his death, which took place January 1, 1515, his son-in-law, Francisco I succeeded him.

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