Biography of Jean Baptiste Lully (1632-1687)

Dancer, musician, choreographer and French composer, of Italian origin, born November 28, 1632 in Florence and died in Paris March 27, 1687, whose original name was Giovanni Battista Lulli.

Son of a modest family of Millers, studied music with a religious one in Florence, and then was a disciple of Carissimi. He/She began composing in the House Legrenzi, where played the guitar, until to 1643 he/she went to Paris as a musician and dancer at the service of Mademoiselle Montpensier, where he/she completed his training with Michel Lambert, director of the Six violons of the Grande Mademoiselle. In 1652 he/she was appointed composer of the instrumental music of King Luis XIV, and directed since 1658 Les Petits Violons du Roi, small band of violins accompanying representations of ballet of the Court. In 1661 he/she became Superintendent and composer of Chamber and nationalized French.

In his first compositions of sacred music, Lully retained the Italian style, to which they belong all his ballets. His first ballet was Le Ballet de la Nuit (1653), played by Pierre Beauchamp, Robert Lambert, King Luis XIV and the own Lully. For the first time, he/she composed in the French style in the Ballets of Raillerie (1859), style which continued in Xerxes (1660) and L' shopping (1661). Ballet des saisons (1661) already used no Italian aria and which included thereafter were for parody purposes. In this last work appeared what was its biggest innovation: the introduction of the Recitative, without which there is no real dramatic development. Also is considered the creator of the Overture to the French (two framed slow movements in a fast), that first used in Xerxes.

Between 1664 and 1671 he/she collaborated with Molière, Corneille and Racine and wrote the intermediates of Le Mariage forcé (1664), L'Amour Médecin (1665), La Pastorale Comique (1667) and Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme (1670), La princesse d'Elide and George Dandin. Also in collaboration with Molière and Corneille created psyché (1671), whose treatment is totally French.

In 1672 the King appointed him director of l' Académie Royale de Musique in replacement of Marc-Antoine Charpentier. He/She then released his first musical tragedy Cadmus et Hermione (1873), made in collaboration with Quinault, and which followed Thésée et Atys (1676), Isis (1677), Bellerophon (1680), Le Triomphe de L'Amour (1681) and Le Temple de la Paix (1685), these last two choreographed by Beauchamp. Also in its creation were Proserpine (1682), Persée (1683), Phaeton (1684) and Amadis (1685) and what is considered his masterpiece, Armine (1686). In 1681, letters of nobility is assigned which allowed her to become personal Secretary of the King, a charge normally reserved for the French aristocracy.

Lully revolutionized the ballet de cour to include increasingly sophisticated and difficult in his productions, dances which demanded the increase of professional dancers. He/She was also one of the first to introduce women in their choreographies.

The musician used to head wielding a cane of considerable size, a rod of wrought iron of proportions, which hurt you one foot and cause gangrene, produced it death, which can be considered the first musician that has news, who died of a work accident.