Biography of Louis Hubert Gonzalve Lyautey (1854-1934)

Military French, born in Nancy in 1854 and died in Thorey in 1934.

Son of a civil engineer and belonging to a family with a long military tradition, studied at the Academia militar de Saint-Cyr in 1873. He/She followed courses of general staff school and joined the Cavalry, where in 1878 he/she was appointed Lieutenant. Despite this training, his real inclination was heading the activity relations military with the social and cultural environment. Between 1880 and 1882 he/she served in Algeria. In 1888 he/she was assigned to IV Regiment of hunters of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, where he/she remained until 1894, when he/she left for the French colonies of Indochina and Madagascar. Between 1894 and 1897 participated in the pacification of Tonkin, and between 1897 and 1899 in Madagascar, along with the general Gallieni, who appointed him Chief of his staff. Appointed Colonel in 1900, he/she returned to France two years later. From there it was claimed by the French general in Algeria, C. Jonnart, who appointed general Lyautey in 1903.

With this degree, he/she directed the French advance Bechar, the high Guir and the Moulouya. At the head of the division of Oran since 1906, it occupied Oujda in 1907 and pushed the limits of resistance towards the inside. In 1910 he/she married the widow of Colonel Fortove, President of the Cruz Roja. As a result of the events in Fez (Morocco), in 1912 it was called by the French Government and appointed High Commissioner of the Republic in Morocco, where he/she remained until 1923. The year of 1912 was a moment of development of its popularity in the intellectual spheres and was elected a member of the French Academy. That same year, he/she also highlighted by its activity in Morocco, where he/she consolidated French rule through a policy of deterrence and commitment with the notable Moroccans. With the outbreak of the first world war it became Morocco an anti-German bastion and quarry of labor, supplies and troops to France. With the arrival of Briand to the Council (1915-1917), Lyautey was appointed Minister by the Guerra and intervened in Rome and Calais conferences between December 1916 and March 1917.

In 1917 he/she returned to Morocco, where he/she continued his military occupation, at the same time that gave start to the first signs of independence. It fostered the Administration with Moroccan staff and promoted higher education. With these concessions, tried to create an environment more favourable to France in that not-too-distant future. In 1921 he/she was appointed Marshal of France and returned to his country. He/She resigned from his post in October 1923; He/She was replaced by Marshal P├ętain. He/She retired to Thorey, where from 1925 was devoted to cultural and propaganda activities.

He organized the international Colonial Exposition in 1931 in Vincennes, and continued his literary activities until his death, in 1934. Since 1961 his remains rest in the Pantheon of the Invalides in Paris.

Some of his works are: letters from Tonkin and Madagascar (1894-1899), published in 1931, letters from the South of Madagascar (1900-1902), published in 1935, and action words (1927).

Bibliography

CATROUX, g.: Lyautey le Marochain. (Paris:1952).

MAURAOIS, a.: Lyautey. (Paris:1953).

MAMJ