Biography of reina de Francia María Teresa de Austria (1638-1683)

Queen of France of Spanish origin born in El Escorial September 20, 1638 and died 30 July 1683 at Versailles. She was the daughter of the Spanish King Felipe IV and the first of his wives Elisabeth of Bourbon (daughter of Henry IV of France). Baptized by Cardinal Gaspar de Borja y Velasco, were her godparents Francisco I, Duke of Modena, and María Borbón, Princess of Carignan. He received a good education in his childhood. On the death in 1646 by then only brother, Baltasar Carlos, remained as heir to the throne. His father remarried married his niece Mariana of Austria (1649), María Teresa had friendship with her, only four years older, and it was the bride of her sister Margarita Teresa (born 1651). In 1655 was sworn Princess of Asturias and was therefore considered successor to Felipe IV. The following year, the French Ambassador, Hugues de Lionne proposed the valid Luis Méndez de Haro marriage between María Teresa and Luis XIV, according to orders from the mother, Anna of Austria (Spanish by birth, as she was the daughter of Felipe III). The link was then rejected to avoid the subsequent union between Spain and France.

However, birth in November 1657 stepbrother prosperous Felipe, María Teresa lost its status as heir and has reopened the marriage negotiations, being sent Ambassador Antonio Pimentel interview with French favourite, Cardinal Jules Mazarin. Thus, although the Queen Mariana of Austria preferred to his stepdaughter marry his brother Emperor Leopold I (ruled out this link, would be achieved from this by the infanta Margarita Teresa), finally came to an agreement, which was also an important part of the peace of the Pyrenees between the two countries. Peace, signed 7 November 1659 on the island of Pheasants (at the mouth of the Bidasoa River), put an end, for now, to the long-lasting conflict that opposed them from the thirty years war (after 1640 in except for Spain and France). One of the main clauses of the Treaty of was the resignation of María Teresa and their descendants to possible rights to the Spanish throne in Exchange for a dowry of half a million gold crowns, payable in three instalments.

Finally, the 15 April 1660 departed Princess towards the border, accompanied by a large Entourage in which as aposentador was the real painter Diego Velázquez, which had portrayed it earlier and got sick of death on the trip. In San Sebastián on 2 June he swore to his resignation, and the next day held the wedding by proxy; 6 was given the infanta on the island of pheasants, who finally met her husband day 9 in San Juan de Luz (in the French Pyrenees-Atlantiques). There was verified the link: María Teresa had nearly 22 years, the same as Luis XIV. The couple then went to Paris, where he came the following month of September. However, the substantial dowry could not be paid and the French monarch demanded to change some of the Spanish domains located to the East of France (in the Netherlands and Franche-Comté), to what Felipe IV refused. In October of 1662 broke negotiations, getting Luis XIV to help Portuguese rebels. The situation would lead to all-out war after the death of the Spanish King in 1665, which will definitely set off succession to María Teresa (not to his sister Margaret and her children in the event that the new King Carlos II, born in 1661, died prematurely or without descent). The war's return was very short (1667-1668), losing Spain part of Flanders.

It had nothing to do María Teresa, who, as a shy character, gracious and humble, little friend to the courtly magnificence, was never any influence in French political affairs. His family life was not happy because of the early infidelities of Luis XIV, just a year after the wedding, with Luisa de La Vallière and then with Francisca de Rochechouart, Duchess of Montespan. María Teresa, who wanted her husband endured this resignation without hold against him to Luis XIV, dedicated to pious practices and simple amusements. Hardly was with her husband rather than at public events, like a trip to Flanders when the war's return and other Alsace and Burgundy (1683). Luis XIV, as if they never wanted to María Teresa not abused it ever, had decided in 1682 with his wife. But precisely at the turn of the last of those trips, she fell ill, dying shortly afterwards at the age of 45. His funeral oration was pronounced by Jacobo Bossuet and by Spirit Fléchier. Faithful wife and good mother, with the French monarch had six children, though only one survived, Luis, called "big Dolphin", which would be father of Felipe of Anjou (later King of Spain as Felipe V, despite provisions in the Treaty of the Pyrenees and the testament of Felipe IV) and grandfather of Luis XV of France. He had been friends with the preceptora of her stepchildren Francisca of Aubigné, marquise de Maintenon, with whom Luis XIV would marry in secret to 1684.

Bibliography

BELADIEZ, e. Spanish Queens of France. (Madrid, Word: 2002).

BERTRAND, L. Fri amorouse of Louis XIV. (Paris, Flammarion: 1924).

BLUCHE, F. Louis XIV. (Paris, Fayard: 1986).

Relationship of the marriage of the Lady Infanta of Spain, Queen of France, Doña María Teresa. (Fuenterrabia, General Directorate of archives and libraries: 1959).

ZANGER, A.E. Scenes from the marriage of Louis XIV: weeding fictions and the making of absolutist power. (Stanford; University Press: 1997).

Links on the Internet

http://www.louis-xiv.de/ ; Page with information about Luis XIV, with a section on their wives and lovers (in English).