Biography of George Catlett Marshall (1880-1959)

Military and U.S. politician born in Uniontown (Pennsylvania) on December 31, 1880 and died in Washington, D.C. on October 16, 1959; He/She was head of the State of the army during World War II and promoter of the Marshall Plan for the economic recovery of Western Europe after the war, which earned him the award of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1953.

Belonging to a family of settlers in America since the 17TH century, in 1897 decided to enter in the Virginia Military Institute in Lexington to make military career. After graduating as one of the first of her class, in 1902 he/she received the office of second lieutenant and then sailed to the Philippines, where he/she stayed for a year and a half. During the first world war, now with the rank of Colonel, served as Chief of operations of the 1st Infantry Division of the general John j. Pershing, the first U.S. troops to arrive in France (1917), and later was appointed to the State of the I army, where he/she had a leading role in the planning of the Saint Mihiel and Argonne offensives. Between 1919 and 1924 was aide to general Pershing in Washington, from 1924 to 1927 he/she served in China, and from 1927 to 1933 he/she was instructor at the infantry school in Fort Benning (Georgia). He/She died in 1927 his first wife, Elisabeth Carter, with whom he/she had married in 1902, in 1930 returned to marry Katherine Boyce. In 1936 he/she was promoted to Brigadier general and he/she was appointed to the plans section of Guerra, in the barracks in Washington, D.C.

On September 1, 1939, the day World War II broke out he/she was appointed head of the State most of the army of the United States. His first work in office was to reorganize the armed forces in all aspects: substantial increase in troops, which had been greatly reduced in the interwar period and at the end of the war came to more than eight million soldiers; introduction of new methods of instruction and military tactics; renewal of equipment and armament, etc. With the United States entry into the war (December 7, 1941), he/she was responsible for the training, organization and deployment of troops us on all fronts, as well as the appointment of the commanders of the main operations. Endowed with great strategic and organizational capacity, became one of the advisors most appreciated by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and was a leading figure in the interallied Conference in Washington (1941), Tehran (1943), Quebec (1944) Yalta (1945) and Potsdam (1945). It played an important role in the planning of the d-day landing in Normandy (June 6, 1944), although it was not finally chosen for the direction of the operation, a responsibility that fell to the general Eisenhower. He/She suffered the loss of one of his sons, Allen, died in combat on the Italian front (1944). Their contribution to the final Allied victory earned him the nickname of "Organizer of victory" by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill.

In 1945 the President Harry S. Truman assigned to China with the mission to mediate between the Communist and nationalist parties and put an end to the civil war, but returned without having achieved his goal. In January 1947 he/she was appointed Secretary of State in place of James F. Byrnes, since since he/she launched his famous plan, the European Recovery Program, better known as the Marshall Plan, which provided all sorts of assistance (financial, food, etc.) for a period of five years amounting to 13 billion dollars, which was a strong push for the economic reconstruction of Europe. Also chaired the American Red Cross (1949) and in reward for his services he/she was promoted to the highest military rank ever awarded in the U.S. Army.

Retired from public life in 1949, in 1950 he/she returned temporarily as Defense Secretary to lead his country's policy in the Korea war (1950-1953).