Biography of Juan o el Empecinado Martín Díaz (1775-1825)

Juan Martín Díaz, the Empecinado. Cubelles.

Guerrilla and general Spanish, more known as "the Empecinado", born in Castrillo de Duero on September 2, 1775, and died at Roa on August 19, 1825.

Family of farmers, he sat soldier square in 1791 and took part in the war of Roussillon. At the end of this, graduated in 1795, married, and devoted himself to no-till. In April-May 1808 rose Aranda in a game against the French. Made prisoner, avoided at once and re-fashioned his departure that in 1811 had 6,000 men. Helped him in the early Leandro Antonio García, who became his friend and disciple. The part of the Empecinado, of the good turnout, on May 24 in Brea and Campos de Villarejo action, was published in commercial Diario de Cádiz (1 July 1810). Joints were giving him rankings, which recognized the Government: Commander with salary of Lieutenant (April 4, 1808); Commander of the light cavalry (December 1809), brigadier of Cavalry (September 1810). The concise, number 11 from September 14, 1810, announcing a patriotic donation on behalf of his troop, still Colonel called. His correspondence with Ramón de Salas (1810) was published in issue 2 of notes (Madrid, 1814), and his highly patriotic letter to Leopold-Joseph Hugo (December 7, 1810), response to another of the general, which invited him, across the Board from the Huerta Hernando, i.e. that of Burgos, next to recognize José I, he was published in Curt, n. 16 (February 2, 1811).

On December 30, 1810 dated Sacedón article "to the Madrid faithful residing in Cádiz" (commercial Journal of Cadiz, February 5, 1811), in which, after praising the heroism of the people of Madrid in the facts of the uprising of May 2 and in the footsteps of Burgos and Somosierra, asked for help to 800 volunteers gathered at Salmeron (Guadalajara). His fame flew: perhaps the first biography, "News of the beginning of the military career of the famous D. Juan Martín, commonly known by the Empecinado, communicated by a colleague," was published in Curt, n. 8 (January 16, 1811). January 18, 1811 he visited Valencia, according to Curt, n. 16 (February 2, 1811). He already had such fame that the Curt, who dedicated his number 27 (February 24, 1811) to benefit from the departure of the Empecinado, declared that it "has given name to all the other Spanish guerrillas, who are usually called the Empecinados". His letter to Juan Facundo Knight (Cuenca, March 1, 1811), Curt n. 42 (March 24, 1811), is a compliment of volunteers from Madrid to their orders. French Mayor of Cuenca, Luis Saiz, invited you again 9 February 1811 to change sides, and Juan Martín answered 21 from Priego, rejecting such a possibility, in terms that recall the letter of Jovellanos general Sebastiani: "don't fight by clergy or by the friars, or by the great, but for the rights of the nation, because the Religion is respected, because the freely elected representatives put order in the Church and in the State, and finally, because we have a homeland and legitimate Government. I struggle as old Spanish and Castilian military, who know that if he dies, his death is glorious"(letter in Curt, may 4, 1811).

He was appointed Colonel of the Cavalry Regiment of Cazadores de Guadalajara in June 1811. His letter of Sigüenza (11 September 1811) reveals its functions prevent grains of enemy supplies and search the defection in their ranks, and also the destroy certain items that, calling themselves "Patriots armed", committing all sorts of excesses (Curt, October 9, 1811). Again praised locals in letter dated September 28, 1811 in Calatayud (Curt, 23 October 1811). A party appeared in a supplement to the impartial of Alicante was reproduced in mercantile Journal of Cadiz n. 91 (March 31, 1812). A letter to José I, answer to another of the Duke of Mahon, (Sigüenza may 25, 1812), was also published in the fair of Alicante and was reproduced in mercantile Journal of Cadiz (numbers 10, 11 and 12 July 1812): holds therein the right to kill the Renegades, which prisoners, are made not by the military, but as criminals. Another letter, written in the vicinity of Cuenca, undated, published trade journal of Cadiz, n. 163 (June 11, 1812). Rose to quarterback (13 October 1814). In January 1820, he attempted to proclaim the Constitution in Valladolid and then in Aranda and Nava de Roa. It supported with enthusiasm the movement of irrigation and became second out of military Governor of Zamora and Valladolid.

The Special Committee of the courts, to honor the memory of Juan de Padilla and Juan de Lanuza, acknowledged his participation in the discovery and exhumation of the remains of Padilla, Bravo and Maldonado (Madrid, 20 June 1821). On October 17, 1821 he figured in his commoner Merindad. It was immediately dismissed by having read the troop a brochure of Romero Alpuente. Hosted in 1823 to the capitulation of Extremadura, it obtained passport for Aranda, while Roa Mayor claimed in his memoirs that it was false. Taken prisoner in ELMS by the royalists, and taken to Nava de Roa while Roa, was sentenced to hanging for Mayor Domingo Fuentenebro, by community member. For two years he was exposed to the revenge of the royalists and those who wanted to do is to forgive your past liberalism, did not work the attempt to bring their cause to Valladolid, and nor was compliance with the order of the general captain of Castilla la Vieja, Carlos O'Donnell, that handed the prisoner. Fuentenebro had direct orders from the King. At the end was ajusticiado, before an escape attempt that broke their wives. It is claimed that he did it because he saw among the spectators to his wife, of the arm of a realist.

Bibliography

CARRASCO and SAYZ, Adolfo: Icono-biografia of Spanish Generalship. Madrid: 1901.

GIL NOVALES, Alberto: The patriotic societies. Madrid: Tecnos, 1975.

The war of independence. Portraits. Madrid: 1908.

LOOP, Sebastián: Memorias de el alcalde de Roa Don Gregorio González Arranz (1788-1840). Madrid: 1935.

PAEZ RIOS, Elena: Hispanic iconography. Madrid: 1966.

A GIL NOVALES.