Biography of Valerio. Emperador de Roma Maximiano Galerio (250-311)

Roman Emperor born in Sardica (Thrace) around the year 250, and died in 311 A.d. His full name was Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximiano. He was a member of the Tetrarchy created by the Emperor Diocletian where Galerius acted as César from year 293 to 305 and augusto from the 305 311. Born in a humble family, Galerius was his early years performing the office of pastor in the mountains of Thrace. He soon joined the army, where renowned self-worth made him reach higher ranks during the Governments of Aurelian and Probus. In the year 293 was adopted by Emperor Diocleciano and proclaimed Caesar in the eastern part of the Empire, as well as Constantius in the western part, within the new system of Government devised by Diocletian to cope with the current difficulties. In the 293 Constantius was adopted by Maximian and proclaimed Caesar in the new system of Government devised by Diocletian to cope with the difficulties of the Empire. The Tetrarchy consisted of sharing power among four emperors (quattuor Princes mundi): two in quality of augustos (SRS) and two others as Caesars (iuniores).

Constancio Cloro and Galerius were the Caesars while Diocletian and Maximian were as Augusto's Copacabana. It was not from a division of powers, but of civil and administrative; functions i.e., the augustos proposed measures putting in motion the Caesars. Galerius to the Government of Greece and danubianas provinces corresponded him. He chose the city of Thessaloniki as a residence because of its strategic position on the limes. To complete the picture of the tetrarchs as one big family, Galerius had to divorce his wife to marry with Valeria, daughter of Diocletian. Year 295, Galerius launched a campaign against the Persians, who had invaded Armenia. After some initial defeats, in the 298 won a decisive victory near Carras, which made possible the signing of the peace with the King Narses in which new territories were incorporated into the Empire, such as Mesopotamia and five satrapies transtigritanas.

After the victory, Galerius received the title of persicus maximus, erected a triumphal arch in Thessaloniki and held a few persici ludi. Between 299 and 305 acted against the sarmatae, Goths and Carpi, which threatened the Hungarian plain. Caesar Galerius greatly influenced Diocletian in carrying out violent persecution against Christians. Galerius, convinced pagano, saw as a danger to the State the rigorist doctrine considered incompatible to be Christian with serving in the army. The edict against the manicheans was promulgated in the year 297 and against Christians in 303. Although the measure was applied very unevenly in the imperial provinces, Galerius acted with all forcefulness, since he forced to make a sacrifice to the Roman gods to all Christians, Laity or clergy, under penalty of death. The own Galerius would promulgated in 311 an edict of tolerance, revoking the persecutions, shortly before his death. In May of that same year, Diocletian and Maximian abdicated as augustos, moment in which gave home a second Tetrarchy where Galerius and Constancio Cloro became August. Flavius Valerius severe and Maximino Daya attended them as Caesars. After the changes that have taken place, Galerius went on to exercise its jurisdiction over the Balkans and Anatolia.

The second Tetrarchy not convinced or Maxentius, son of Maximian, nor Constantine, son of Constancio Cloro, who considered damaged their inheritance rights. When in the year 306 chlorine died in Britain, Constantine was hailed Augustus by the troops. In the meantime Galerius promoted to the same position to Severo, old Caesar of the West. Difficulties increased when the Praetorians and the people of Rome named Emperor Maxentius. This was soon revolt against Severus, he was assassinated in the year 306. Galerius invaded Italy in the summer of the 307, to depose Maxentius, but was forced to retire after the failure of the siege of Iteramna. Between October and November of the 308, Galerius promoted a meeting in Carnuntum with Diocletian and Maximian so declare usurper to Maxentius. Without success, Galerius proclaimed Augustus of the West to Licinius. That year 308 Empire had 5 augustos: Galerius, Licinius, Maximinus, Constantine and Maxentius. In the year 311, after a serious illness, he died at Sardica in early may 311. His nephew Maximino Daya, who did not name any César succeeded him.

Bibliography

BARNES, T.D. The new empire of Diocletian and Constantine. (Cambridge; Mass. 1982).

BRAVO, G. Diocleciano and administrative reforms of the Empire. (Madrid; Akal. 1991).

CHASTAGNOL, a. "L´accentrarsi of the system: the tetrarchia e Constantine". Storia di Roma, III, (1993, pp193 and s.s.).

MAIER, F.G. The transformations of the Mediterranean world, s. III-VIII. (Madrid; Twenty-first century, 1972).

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