Biography of emperador del Sacro Imperio Maximiliano I (1459-1519)

Archduke of Austria; born in Wiener Neustadt, in 1459, and died in Wels, on January 11, 1519; and Emperor of the Holy Empire 1519. The only son of Emperor Federico III and Doña Leonor, daughter of King Duarte of Portugal. He/She was elected King of the Romans, in 1486, in life of his father Federico III, agreed to the throne in a climate of opposition from the nobles and cities. Maximiliano strengthened opposition to the Habsburgs in the Empire and in Europe through the game's heritage, most obtained by matrimonial alliances as by conquests. He/She married in 1477 María of Burgundy, daughter and heiress of Carlos the bold, which allowed him to intervene in Flanders, Province threatened by Luis XI, with whom he/she signed, after the indecisive battle of Guinegatte in 1479; the Treaty of Arras in 1482, which provisionally regulated the succession of Burgundy: France would get the Burgundy and Picardy Doge, and the rest would be for Maximiliano.

Against his will, he/she had to agree the wedding of his daughter Margarita with the Dauphin of France. As dowry he/she received the County of Artois, Burgundy and Franche-Comté. Far from giving up the fight, and favored by the death of Luis XI, Maximiliano enlisted German mercenaries training them to the famous Swiss mode. With your help it submitted Bruges and Ghent, who recognized his Regency. The latter returned to his son Felipe, whose guardianship had been taken. Such an increase of power allowed Maximiliano to temporarily leave the Netherlands to help his father hurry by the conquests of Matthias I Corvinus, King of Hungary, which in addition to most of Austria, Carinthia and Styria had just occupy Viena.El 16 February 1486 was elected King of the Romans in Frankfurt and crowned in Aachen on 9 April. Back in the Netherlands, he/she joined Francisco II, Duke of Brittany, in its fight against the French Crown. The presence of Swiss and German mercenaries hired by Maximiliano finished off this unpopular war, contrary to the commercial interests of the cities, above all of Ghent, Leuven and Bruges. In February 1488 the Burghers of Bruges made him prisoner for almost three months. Once released, he/she resumed the fight, this time with greater fortune, although his marriage with Anne, the heiress of Brittany, by power of Attorney, was disrupted by the unprecedented move of Carlos VIII of France who forced her to marry him, rejecting his daughter. In the years 1492 and 1493 was finally imposed in the Netherlands, and when his son Felipe, reached the age of majority at age 15, began his rule in 1494, the country was fully pacified. After the battle of Tournon, also the King of France was forced to enter the peace of Senlis (1493), returning the County of Artois and Franco Condado.A together with the person of Princess Daisy beginning of 1490 died Matthias I Corvinus, and according to the Treaty of 1463, the Crown of Hungary should lie formally with Maximiliano. The great Hungarians, however, chose to Ladislao, King of the Bohemians.Federico III died in 1493 and Maximiliano initiated its own policy in the Affairs of the Empire. In March of the following year he/she married Blanca María Sforza, daughter of the Duke Galeazzo in Milan. His call for a crusade of the Princes of the West under his guidance did not find the desired collaboration. The year of his succession in Germany, Carlos VIII of France began the first of the great European wars with the invasion of Italy. With the unexpected success of the French troops was born the League of Venice agreed by Spain, Milan, Venice, the Pope and Maximiliano to save their interests. Carlos VIII of France left Italy, and the League was undone, in 1498, three years after its formation.At the diet of Worms (1495) Maximiliano tried to first wrap the Empire forces in their companies. The beginnings of a reform of the empire suffered continuous denoting the successive diets.In August 1499 revived the fight for Italy. Maximiliano returned to claim the economic and military aid of the Empire, in favour of which granted the establishment of the rule of the Empire. The meager and ineffective assistance, however, did not allow him to interfere in Italy, and negotiated with France. The Treaty of Blois (1504) agreed the link of his grandson Carlos with Claudia, daughter of Luis XII, and the investiture of the Duchy of Milan for the King of France, but the Treaty was not fulfilled by the French side.The breaking of the Treaty of Blois and the death of his son Felipe (1506) meant a serious setback to Maximiliano. As tutor of his grandson Carlos instituted to his daughter Margaret as Regent of the countries Bajos.En 1515 concluded the marriage of the Crown Prince of Hungary and Bohemia, Luis, and her granddaughter María, and his grandson Fernando and the Princess Anne, sister of Luis. To earn the support of the King of Poland did not hesitate to sacrifice the interests of the Empire represented by the Teutonic order after having defended against the claims of one. In the last years of his life, Maximiliano devoted himself to secure the election of his grandson Carlos, King of Romanos.De 1495-1512, in successive diets, their institutional projects clashed with the Princes and they led to a series of misleading commitments: creation of an imperial Chamber, Supreme Court of the Empire which had its sessions along with the diet and was chosen by the Emperor; an aulic Council, whose powers invaded the land of the former; a classroom camera, financial, and a foreign affairs agency. Germany was divided into ten circles, an imperial military recruitment was imposed and the diet could order a general tax. In fact, Maximiliano failed at all the creation of a truly central Government and Princes and cities were owners admit or reject the payment of tax and the provision of military aid; on the other hand, he/she found the grandeur of the House of Austria through his matrimonial politics, his organizing work and financial support which dispensed him Jakob Fugger, the banker of the Habsburgs, supported that it remained in the imperial election of Carlos V, in 1519.