Biography of Emperador del Sacro imperio Maximiliano II (1527-1576)

Emperor of the Holy Empire Roman Germanic (1564-76), King of Bohemia (1562) and Hungary (1563), born in Vienna, 31 July of the year 1527, and died in the city of Regensburg on 12 October of the year 1576. He/She was son of Fernando I of Germany (brother of the Emperor Carlos V) and Ana Jayellón.

From his earliest childhood he/she was transferred to the Court of Spain, where the Emperor Carlos V. grew up along with her cousin, Prince Felipe (future King of Spain), under the close supervision of his uncle, took an active part in campaigns that it launched against the Crown of France, in the year 1544, and against the Protestant the Schmalkaldic League, in the year 1547. Between the years 1548 - 50 was the Regent of Spain due to the absence of the Emperor, Prince and heir Felipe, marrying her cousin, Princess María. Due to the political intentions of Carlos V, who wanted to transfer all of its power and possessions to his son Felipe in detriment of Maximiliano, this was part of the Spanish Court, after which began to enter into relations with different Protestant princes, which was on the verge of wasting the imperial crown. In November of the year 1562 he/she was elected King of the Romans (imperial crown) in the diet held in the city of Frankfurt, in addition to King of Bohemia, for, the following year, receiving the Crown of Hungary in his head. Finally, after the death of his father Fernando I on 25 July of the year 1564, was crowned Emperor of Germany, leaving their patrimonial possessions reduced to the Austria today by testamentary disposition of his father, since his brothers received sovereignty over the Styria, Carinthia, Carniola and the Tyrol.

Once named Emperor, Maximiliano II attempted to restore religious peace in their possessions, by a policy of consensus and compromise that found the rejection of both Protestants and Catholics, although thanks to his regime of religious tolerance allowed the strong support and reinforcement of Protestantism in the German States. After the death of the Spanish Crown Prince, don Carlos, Maximiliano returned to direct its political interest to the Peninsula, with the intention to introduce in the throne any descendant of his family. Therefore, he/she managed to marry his daughter María with the King of Spain, his cousin Felipe II, in the year 1569. To ratify and ensure further his change of political direction, he/she stated publicly Catholic, thus ending his manifest religious ambiguity, which had provoked suspicion until then by the confessional parties, but therefore vary their policy of rapprochement and tolerance towards the Protestants, as these represented the majority in his Kingdom.

The war against the Turks absorbed most of the economic and human resources of his reign. In the year 1566, sultan Suleiman II allied himself with the enemy of Maximiliano II, Juan Segismundo de Siebenbürgen. Both gathered a great army which was directed against Vienna. Maximiliano II, after the award of a major grant by the diet of Augsburg, celebrated in the year 1566, managed to raise an impressive army of 80,000 men, with those who could stop the Turkish offensive on Vienna. After two years of heavy fighting, in which the Empire was worn out deeply, Maximiliano II could sign a valuable eight-year truce with the new Turkish sultan, Selim II, which involved the payment of an annual tribute to the Ottoman Empire and which failed to prevent repeated Turkish incursions by Hungarian territory. However, thanks to this truce, Maximiliano II reaffirmed and created new defences along the Hungarian border. After his death, occurred in the city of Regensburg on 12 October of the year 1576, his eldest son Rodolfo succeeded him on the throne.


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