Biography of José de Mazarredo y Salazar (1745-1812)

Geographer, marino and Spanish Administrativo, born in Bilbao March 8, 1745 and died in Madrid on 20 July 1812.


He was responsible for most of the Spanish nautical activity from the last quarter of the 18th century. In 1772 he/she participated in an expedition to the Philippines where he/she used, for the first time in Spain, according to Martín Fernández de Navarrete, the method of Lunar distances to determine lengths in the sea; He/She had apparently learned the method through an English magazine. In 1774 he/she sailed to Brazilian waters with José Varela and Ulloa to determine the position of el Sur de Trinidad. In 1778 he/she determined many latitudes and lengths of the coasts of Spain and Africa with a stopwatch Arnold, data that were subsequently used by Vicente Tofiño for his maritime Atlas. In 1792 he/she organized the expedition of Cosme Churruca to compose a marine Atlas of North America.

His fame among his contemporaries, not only as a Navigator but also as surveying supervisor, was correctly locked. According to Isidore of Antillon, "no one should more geography of Spain than to his Excellency Mr. D. José de Mazarredo. With a quintante and Sextant for reflection and Quicksilver and artificial horizon, Meridian altitude of the Sun, moon, Jupiter, Mars and some stars has determined the geographical latitude of Alcalá de Henares and other attractions. "You must be, in addition, the length of Pamplona, deduced from the eclipse of the Sun of 180a6, which was noted in that city".

One of the main interests of Mazarredo was the improvement of the manufacture of scientific instruments. He/She promoted the transfer of instruments of the old Observatory of Cadiz to the new of Lion Island, which endowed with highly-trained technicians. In 1775, Ferdinand Berthoud, Central European instruments manufacturer, offered to educate students for the Spanish Navy. Mazarredo pledged to find suitable candidates recruited from the body of students of the school of watchmaking. As a result, organized the formation of a whole generation of Spanish instrument builders, sending students to Paris to work with Ferdinand and Louis Berthoud, and England. Some of these, such as Cayetano Sánchez died in the epidemic of 1800.



A collection of tables for the most necessary uses of navigation, (Madrid, Real printing of the Gazette), 1779. Lessons of navigation for use by companies of marine guards, (Island Guard Marine, 1798).


ANTILLON, Isidoro de. Elements of astronomy, natural and political geography of Spain and Portugal. (Valencia: Esteban, 1815 [2nd ed., p. 14]).File General military Segovia.Archivo historical Nacional.ARTOLA GALLEGO, Miguel. The Spain of Fernando VII. (Madrid: 1968). Diari de Barcelona (May 1, 1809). Mercantile Journal of Cadiz (cit.). Dictionary of history of Spain. (Madrid: Revista de Occidente, 1968 [2nd ed., 3 vols]).FERNÁNDEZ DURO, Cesareo. Nautical digressions. (Madrid: Aribau, 1879 [vol. IV, pp. 157-182]).F NAVARRETE, M. maritime library Spanish. (Madrid: widow of Calero, 1851 [vol. II, pp. 82-96]).LÓPEZ PIÑERO, José María, GLICK, Thomas F., NAVARRO BROTONS, Víctor and PORTELA framework, Eugenio. English historical of the modern science in Spain. (Barcelona: 1983 [2 vols.]).Merchant RIBA, Joan. José Bonaparte. (Madrid: 1983)MORALES, Benigno. Letter of... to Félix Mejía (Philadelphia: 1825).PAEZ rivers, Elena. Hispanic iconography (Madrid: 1966 [5 vols.]).PALAU Y DULCET, Antonio. Handbook of Hispanic bookseller. (Barcelona: 1948-1977 [2nd ed.]).Pavia, Francisco de Paula. Biographical Gallery of Marina generals, chiefs and notables who were in the same Corporation from 1700-1868 (Madrid: 1873). Editor-General of Spain, no. 198 (December 29, 1811).

Thomas F. GlickAlberto Gil Novales