Sculptor, painter, and Italian architect, born March 6, 1475 in Caprese and died in Rome on February 18, 1564. Its humanistic training starts early under the tutelage of Francesco from Urbino, teacher chosen by his father Ludovico, Podestà of Chiusi and Caprese. Miguel Ángel Buonarroti, early expressed his great artistic talent, but had to overcome initial opposition from his family, which he did by his friend Francesco Granacci. In April 1488, it is placed in the workshop of Ghirlandaio, where it remains as a trainee for one year, although his contract was for three. The following year, under the tutelage of Bertoldo di Giovanni, frequent the garden of the Medicis of San Marco, where he studied ancient sculptures there gathered. His first works arouse the admiration of Lorenzo the magnificent who welcomes him in his Palacio of the long way; There Miguel Ángel singing dealing with Poliziano and other humanists in the circle mediceo, and will get in touch with platonic theories, which will become a mainstay of its culture, which will reflected both in his artistic works and in his work as a poet.
Between 1490 and 1492, he made his first drawings, studies on the frescoes of Massacio and Giotto and the first reliefs, Madonna della Scala and the battle of the Centaurs, preserved in the casa Buonarroti of Florence, and in which there is already a clear stylistic definition. In them is shown as the clear heir to the Florentine art of the 14th and 15th century at the time that establishes a more direct link with classical art.
In 1494, after the death of Lorenzo the magnificent and the preaching of Savonarola, Miguel Ángel flees Florence, remains for some time in Bologna, where sculpts for the Ark of Santo Domingo San Petronio, San Procolo figures and a Ángel, testimony of admiration that cause you the reliefs of Jacopo della Quercia, the portal of San Petronio.
In 1496, he moved to Rome, where he began a decade of intense activity during which Miguel Ángel is devoted, without having reached their thirties, as one of the greatest artist of his time. Before 1501 he had already carved the Vatican Pieta and the Baco of Bargello; After that year performs the Tondo Pitti, the Taddei Tondo and the Virgin with the child, in which appears a more delicate modeling product of leonardescas influences. At the same time are the cardboard of the battle of Cascina, now lost, painted for the lordship of Florence, for the same room in which Leonardo was to the battle of Anghiari, the Doni Tondo and the David, placed in front of the Palace of the Signoria of Florence, and that becomes the expression of the Supreme civic ideals of the Renaissance.
In March 1505, Pope Julius II commissioned him the realization of his funeral monument, projecting a complex architecture and monumental sculpture, which celebrated the triumph of the Church rather than the prestige of the Pontiff. miguel Ángel excited about this work remains in Carrara for eight months to deal, personally, the choice and extraction of needed marbles, but to return to Rome, the Pontiff, adsorbed by the planes of Bramante for the reconstruction of San Pedro, had filed the plans of the mausoleum.
In 1506, Miguel Ángel, angry, leaves Rome and goes to Florence, which takes up the work of the battle of Cascina and painting of San Mateo, but at the end of November, after the numerous appeals of the Pontiff, meets with him in Bologna, where is dedicated to sculpt a great statue in bronze of the Pontiff, placed on the façade of San Petronio, in 1508 and destroyed only three years later by the followers of Bentivoglio.
In may 1508, he signed the contract for the decoration of the Sistine Chapel, whose frescoes were completed four years later, after a solitary and tenacious work. Her idea a grandiose architectural structure painted, inspired by the actual shape of the dome. The general biblical theme of the vault, Miguel Ángel standing neo-Platonic interpretation of Genesis, and gives shape to the interpretation of the images that will become the very symbol of the art of the Renaissance.
After the death of Julio II in May of 1513, the artist signed a second contract for the tomb of the Pontiff. In the space of three years sculpts two figures of slaves, the rebellious slave and the dying slave, and bassinet, reflecting with tormented power, the moral greatness that encouraged the frescoes of the Sistine Chapel. But the second project was not concluded, standing in 1545, in San Pietro in Vincoli, the latest version of the monument, entrusted in part to the realization of his assistants, only a timid reflection of the great dream of youth, designed by Miguel Ángel.
In 1516, commissioned by Leo X began the façade of San Lorenzo, which will have to leave with great bitterness in 1520. Of the original project are preserved numerous drawings and a model of wood, in the casa Buonarroti in Florence. From 1520 and 1530, Miguel Ángel engages in Florence in the construction of the new sacristy of San Lorenzo and the Laurentian library. In the first, the conception of Brunelleschi in the old sacristy, is radically transformed, by inserting into the large walls of marble monuments, dominated by the figures of the day, night, dawn and twilight, images of the perennial flow of time.
After the sack of Rome in 1527 and the expulsion of the Medici from Florence, Miguel Ángel is part of the Government of this Republic, named "Governor and Attorney general of manufacture and fortification of the walls", prepares superb drawings which had no realization and is actively involved in the defense of the city besieged by papal troops. With the fall of the Republic in 1530, the forgiveness of Pope Clement VIII saved him from the revenge of the partisans of the Medici. From that year he revisits the works of the new sacristy and Julio II grave and performs the four prisoners, kept in the Academy of Florence. In 1534, unhappy with the new political situation in Florence, he leaves the city and settled in Rome, where it accepted the order of Clement VIII for the altar of the Sistine Chapel; There he made the last judgment, between 1536 and 1541. Until 1550 performs works such as sculpted the Lia and Raquel, also for the tomb of Julio II, the Paolina Chapel frescoes depicting the conversion of Paul and the martyrdom of San Pedro.
During the last twenty years of his life Miguel Ángel is dedicated primarily to works of architecture, directed the works of the Laurentian library, still continuing, the remodeling of the Capitole square, the transformation of the tepidarium of the baths of Diocletian in the basilica of Santa María de los Ángeles, projects of the Porta Pia of San Giovanni dei Fiorentinithe Sforza of Santa María Maggiore Chapel, the completion of the Palazzo Farnese, unfinished by Antonio da Sangallo the younger, and in particular the completion of the Basilica of San Pedro of the Vatican. From this period are latest sculptures as La Piedad Palestrina, the Pieta of the Cathedral of Florence, La Pietà Rondanini, as well as numerous drawings and poetry of religious inspiration.
As a poet, Miguel Ángel, has left some three hundred compositions that occupy high on poetry of the 16th century. Excels his energetic and austere tone and a continuing tension made a blazing expressive immediacy.
The work of Miguel Ángel, held by his contemporaries as the highlight of Renaissance art, was also its dramatic conclusion. His sculptures, paintings and architecture, were admired beyond all limits, considered as superior to the ancient and above nature creations. But Miguel Ángel was still alive when the controversy, then frequently revisited in the 16th and 17TH century between exaltadores fans of his art and his detractors, condemning the lack of measurement and naturalness, opposing force to the grace and elegance of the art of Rafael.
This work was performed between 1496 and 1501, the first stay of Miguel Ángel in Rome. After various translations, today it is conserved in the chapel of the Vatican. miguel Ángel performs commissioned by Cardinal Jean de Villiers from the Grolaine, French Ambassador in Rome. The artist who was then 21 years old, worked two years in the realization of the figures and the polished of all the details.
The approach of the artist in this work we know it through his own words, collected by Condivi, who performs a critical biography of the artist, where it says: "the mother had to be young, younger than the son, to demonstrate eternally Virgin; While the son, incorporated into our human nature, should appear as any other man in his remains deadly". Thus, although the typology of the statue dates back to the models of the previous century, where the Virgin is represented with dead Christ on his knees, the artist creates a composition that gave him universal fame, doing a dead son and a mother who had ever seen before.
The whole is perfectly composed within its silhouette of marble, life-size bodies proportions fit each other, creating a monumental appearance. Faces outside of the time, including the Virgin with resigned attitude, reveal the classic formation of Miguel Ángel.
Virgin does not look to Christ, but with his head bowed, with the gesture of the left hand, accept in silence the divine will, its representation as a young woman, again argued for the own Miguel Ángel: "I believe that such freshness and such a flower of youth, if he has received them in a natural way, have been kept him in a supernatural wayso that the virginity and the eternal purity of the mother of God were demonstrated to the world." The cadaver naked Christ lying in the lap of the mother is an impeccable example of perfection, version and anatomical domain.
After his stay in Rome, and returned to Florence in 1501, Miguel Ángel sculpts the David, image which reflects the vision of the classical Renaissance on the heroic ideal of antiquity.
It was commissioned by the administrators of the Cathedral of Florence, which gave you a block of marble abandoned by another sculptor. The work lasted more than two years, once completed, May 14, 1504 statue, was moved from his workshop, behind the Cathedral, the site for which there had been, the entrance of the Palacio of the lordship, where it remained until it was moved to the Museum of the Academy of Florence, leaving in its place a copy.
The work had been initiated by Agostino di Duccio, forty years earlier, and up to Miguel Ángel no sculptor was able to continue it. The calm arrogance of the David of Donatello and the of Verrocchio, with rhythmic containment of their attitude, Miguel Ángel conceived a naked men whose movement makes us relate to Scopas. Says one of the features more personal sculptor: translate inside the character's tension to a quiet apparent calm.
Their attitude shows the instant before throwing the stone, her look, inquisitive and energetic, is measuring the distance and the point of the coup. Its anatomy, perfect, is stressed and proclaimed, by the movement that it runs through, the wave of defiant force than the tense and maintains in expectant aggressiveness. It retains the Policletocontraposto, but laxity of the left leg is only a withdrawal that allows greater violence in the attack that will produce, the same contrast can be seen in the arms, one ready to attack, the other withdrawn and protector in an attitude of Defense. Torso, bulging muscles, shows the combative tension that runs up to the neck. On the head, Miguel Ángel Gets a mixture of serenity and the classical grandeur with the force of the decision and challenging momentum, the face reveals the pride and moral strength. The harmony of physical and spiritual beauty captures the idea of the action of the hero against his fate, showing an almost divine self-confidence.
The placement of the David against the honourable Member, must not have been liked by Miguel Ángel: this statue has a single point of view, and the defective piece of marble that was delivered to the artist had conditioned the attitude of the giant, Miguel Ángel had projected him to be placed in a niche where you can not see any failure back motivated by first carving. In fact, when the work was installed received more critical acclaim, arguing that it was disproportionate, measuring 4.8 m high, with regard to the biblical description that describes David without reaching the age of thirteen. His right hand was too big, his hips too narrow; even when compared with Hercules, it seemed a cheerful, Victor effortlessly, triumphant hero almost a game, against the overwhelmed image and the military task of Hercules.
However, this work takes all its meaning when it inserts it at the location of Florence at the time, represents the strength and justice necessary to properly govern the city; David becomes a political symbol, Vasari says of him: "as well as David had defended the people and ruled with justice, so that ruled the city had gallantly defend it".
In the year 2004 was the subject of a profound restoration that returned to the marble its luminosity, in addition to the statue was studied with attention to detail, to provide for possible damage to delicate parts, especially the ankles.
This work was commissioned by the pontiff in 1505; miguel Ángel franco enthusiastically accepts the custom devoting all his energies to it. Projects a grandiose funeral monument which combines architecture and sculpture, whose iconographic programming focuses more on the exaltation of the Church Triumphant to the concrete figure of Julio II. The fervor of the artist for this work does that for eight months he moved to Barrara to personally deal with extract blocks of marble, with which the work should be built. On his return to Rome, the Pontiff pending renovation of the basilica of San Pedro, had abandoned the project. Julio II died in 1513 and happens X León, which instructs Miguel Ángel that take care of the abandoned project. The artist is engaged in work which without a doubt more about. Wide initial project deciding the construction of thirty-two large sculptures. The Moses, is one of the five colossal statues projected, but due to that the work was never completed today remains as the main. The project consisted in a tomb mausoleum attached to the wall and filled with a repertoire of allegoric sculptures: joy, the lamentation, slaves, Moses, Paul, the life activates, the contemplative life and victories, is conjuntaban in a perfect symbiosis between images and content Christians and pagans, especially of Platonic root. The Moses becomes the example of the terribilitá michelangelesque, which is the synthesis of the active life and the contemplative life, sweeping force that possesses spiritual greatness and is elevated to the supraterreno.
The Tondo Doni
Painted for his friend Angelo Doni, represents the scene of the Holy family, and is called a tondo by its circular shape. In this work Miguel Ángel expresses his particular interpretation of history, analyses the problem of the connection between Christian history and profane history.
The composition is structured in form of a pyramid, in the foreground appears José, the Virgin and child; the Virgin, central figure, holding high the child, because Christ is superior to his mother. Behind the scenes are a group of nude figures and in the San Juan Bautista child wall. According to the most widespread interpretation that the nude figures represent the age, while the San Juan located at an intermediate level is configured as the link between both scenes, is which announces the arrival of the Savior.
The vault of the Sistine Chapel
In may 1508, Miguel Ángel signs the contract for the decoration of the ceiling of the Sistine, custom made by Julio II Chapel. The frescoes were completed after four years of solitary and tenacious effort, during which, according to her letters and poems, feel painfully uncomfortable and frustrated, ensured that he was not a painter and a sculptor, and that he was unaware of the fresco technique.
The original draft provided the representation of the twelve apostles on the lintels of the vault; miguel Ángel expanding this primary idea to raise a grandiose structure of painted architecture inspired by the shape of the vault, divided into different sections, in which inserts giant figures, which seem to want to get rid of its spatial framework.
The agitation of the biblical characters occurs in a space where the rational perspective and geometry construction has disappeared, where neither represents the enveloping atmosphere of Leonardo, which is replaced by the fullness of anatomical bodies fully contrasting colors.
The first phase of the history of mankind is condensed and summarized with all its dramatic force, twelve scenes of Genesis occupy the central strip of the roof, the represented scenes are: the creation of light; The creation of the stars and planets; The separation of land and water; The creation of Adam; The creation of Eve; The fall and expulsion from paradise; The sacrifice of Noah; The drunkenness of Noah. Around the scenes is the representation of the Sibyls and prophets, placed alternately: Jeremiah; the Persian Sibyl; Joel; Zechariah; the Delphic Sibyl; Isaiah; The Cumaean Sibyl; Daniel; libica Sibyl; Jonas. On the pendentives are the miraculous salvations of Israel, with scenes of figures: Judith and Holofernes; David and Goliath; The brazen serpent; The punishment of Haman. In the lunettes are represented scenes from the old and New Testaments and the ancestors of Christ.
To the general biblical theme, Miguel Ángel gives it a neoplatonic interpretation, turning images into the very symbol of the art of the Renaissance. The epic representation of the vicissitudes of mankind before the law, and the topic of the asceticism of the soul had the intuition of the divine essence. As a result, Miguel Ángel creates a transcendent reality.
The Final judgment
The date that you conceived the idea of this work is not clear, Miguel Ángel is committed to its implementation in March 1534, perhaps once in the previous year is thought be a resurrection for the same wall or the opposite. The death of Pope Clement VIII in September 1534, made this project was abandoned. But shortly after Paul III, new Pontiff, commissioned the last judgment, for which, on the 16 April 1535, began to build the scaffolding.
The unitary composition is ordered by strips of figures: in the upper zone is represented the celestial world, with Dios Juez in the Centre, next to which the Virgin sits, sides Saints and Patriarchs, Apostles, form a first Crown, beyond the martyrs, confessors of the Church, virgins and other blessed, are located at the foot of Godin San Lorenzo and San Bartolomé santos predominant position which would be dedicated to the Sistine Chapel. The figure of a Dios Juez, with a raised arm, seems to boost the rapid movement of the whole. In the lower Strip on the left side are the saved and in the opposite row. At the bottom, left develops the resurrection of the dead, and to the right the transfer of convicted persons, the barque of Charon, before the infernal judge Minos.
The nearly four hundred figures that make up this cool are submerged in an apocalyptic atmosphere, penetrated by the sense of drama between life and death.
The work depicts the end of the dominant High Renaissance classicism and the abandonment of the Platonic ideas: Miguel Ángel breaks with the idea of whole concord between antiquity and Christianity. It closes the cycle initiated in the dome around the idea of salvation. In the hour of judgment appears Christ judge, Apollo, terrible, righteous and relentless. There is no reference to the construction of the space through the perspective, there is no serenity, or harmony, or establishing a unitary and scientific area. In all the work dominates the feeling of agitation, constant movement, confusion and drama. Christ appears in the center overlooking a system in which cease without ceasing the elect, while inmates are shaken convulse and precipitate to eternal perdition.
31 October 1541 concludes the work and all of Rome goes to see her, Vasari ensures that you full of amazement and wonder. In such a way that, if you can judge and know paint, sees how much art is terrible and in those figures no one discovers thoughts and emotions better than he knew how to paint.
In its activity as architect at any time will appear linked to the classical norm, this happens for two reasons, the first is that it begins to worry about the architecture to 1513-1515, when started the alternative mannerists with force, the second because it is individual and subjective criteria. Therefore, in their activity as architect Miguel Ángel fits in the Mannerist proposals, on the basis of classicism, they are anti-classic and will lead to the Baroque. When he starts his architectural work had already made their best classics of painting and sculpture, and in this activity, in the controversial classical Mannerism, it opts towards the second option.Works in Florence
His early works are carried out in Florence, in this town projecting the facade of the Church of San Lorenzo, which introduces a series of connotations that recall the Roman architectures. It is a monumental façade divided into two floors and topped in fronton. Conceived scheme from Arc de Triomphe. Novelty the introduction of the same order of columns on two floors, as well as a series of controversial elements represents as it is the quebrazon of the cornices on both floors, or that high body is greater than the bass and that is topped by a pediment medium. The entire façade is designed to House sculptures and reliefs, so it opens numerous niches, circles and rectangles, which are used as simple plastic elements.
In the new sacristy of San Lorenzo it projected the Medicea Chapel. The elevation of the same collect the inheritance of Brunelleschi, projecting a building which is referentially next to it, although in its result has nothing to do with the spaces brunelleschianos. Projected a slightly square plant on which is placed a half dome, pendentives and caissons: to produce a more stylized place an intermediate body between the start of the pendentives and the cornices of the lower body. The slenderness is emphasized with the placement of a vain blind that narrows as it progresses.
In the tomb of Giuliano de Medici, used elements respond little to the classic spirit, are also combined with naturalistic elements like garlands. It poses a fusion of architecture and sculpture, by mixing generous curved Gables on brackets. Classicist aesthetics that is the same that had represented architectures painted the Sistine Chapel.
The library Laurentian; This realization was conditioned by his own character's library. miguel Ángel poses a large room of longitudinal plant which is accessed by a small lobby, which features a monumental order of pilasters to the interior, which correspond to the outside with buttresses, between the in-between alternate large span open and blind windows. Picks up the tradition of the Florentine dichromate, used here to highlight the controversy of the use of classical elements, thus the dark color that had been characteristic of load-bearing elements appears used interchangeably in these and the ornamental elements. The lobby, of small dimensions, picks up a monumental staircase to three main aspects, treads in the form of scrolls, which increases the feeling of burden of the same. It is also played with the dichromate, using dark color for load-bearing elements, even though they actually serve more a decorative function as structural, columns are placed on brackets that are inserted in a wall of color clear that it is being conducted.
Works in Rome
After these Florentine artworks, Miguel Ángel works in Rome, where the Vatican carried out before, the reconstruction of the Palacio Farnese. Against the horizontal nature and serial proposed Sangalo, architect who had begun building, Miguel Ángel breaks with a monumental door and balcony of parties on the noble floor. It projects the top floor of the Palace and the great cornice topped them; This patio is ordered with Corinthian pilasters traslosadas and articulates the openings using geometric elements.
Between 1535 and 1536, commissioned the project of the Basilica of San Pedro, Miguel Ángel meets the old projects, of which only satisfy you of Bramante. His project will continue this and maintain the primitive conception bramantesca. The construction of San Pedro had been implied a series of technical problems that had been the cause of the delay in the works. miguel Ángel will be the only architect capable of solving them. The project of Miguel Ángel maintains the idea bramantesca the dome as a central element. It maximises the buttresses supporting it and reduce spatially the walls of the building, withdrawing them was the Centre, to be able to solve the technical problems of support. Maintains the plant of a Greek cross with apses, but has made the Center the chapels which in principle were to finish with less than half domes. As a result Miguel Ángel raises a centralized structure nothing Orthodox, the dome designed as the center of the building and as a unit of Christianity. The dome, conceived as a sculpture, conditions the valuation of the rest of the building serving as the base of the same. The entire building is projected to facades, the porch or the domes of the chapels, all of monumental character, diminish the tectonic value of the dome, main character of the building.
Model that remains of the project of Miguel Ángel, differs on some things in its ultimate realization, the dome is presented with a large drum topped with a broken ledge, with pairs of columns alternating with openings, marking a compositional rhythm. The frieze is placed on an attic decorated with geometric and floral elements. The flashlight has reference to the de Santa María de las Flores, but here acquires a monumental character.
The entire building is projected on the basis of the dome, as a large basement that holds it, within the sculptural conception that Miguel Ángel applies to all their accomplishments.
The anticlassical position of Miguel Ángel is revealed in the elevation of the dome. The ordering of the elements has nothing to do with the normative Classicist, although it is transmitted the monumentality of the buildings of antiquity. It projected a colossal order of Corinthian pilasters, giant orders that only were used in ancient architecture and which from now on will be something common. In the in-between times are included three hollow and other ones spans large and ornate. It is topped with strange broken attic, stubby dimensions, and great decorative display that used openings with mouldings of geometric decoration with others of naturalistic decoration.
This architectural approach paves the way for what will then be Baroque architecture, on the one hand a monumental and grandiose architecture, road which follows Bernini, coupled with a more ornamental and fantastic, look line retaken by Borromini.
A drawing of the own Miguel Ángel, we know that at his death are constructed the buttresses, the pendentives and the drum. The work will be completed by Giacomo della Porta, following the project of Miguel Ángel, although it slightly stylized appearance of the dome.
In the same years, Miguel Ángel receives the commissioning of the refurbishment of the Plaza of the Capitol, who at that time was nothing more than a set of ancient buildings whose core was the building of the Fund, the great library of the Capitol. The square was a central point of the city, situated immediately before the Roman Forum. In the project of Miguel Ángel is taken as a central reference of all the building of the library space, its facade features a monumental order of pilasters topped by a balustrade decorated with sculptures. Access to the building is resolved through a monumental staircase of double aspect, showing a certain theatrical aspect. Side square buildings, twins, placed obliquely to the library, they use the monumental order of pilasters, characteristic in its architecture, and topped them in a deep eaves upon which sits a balustrade sculptures. This solution will be widely used in the Baroque. From pilaster to pilaster, situated a lintel that serves as a separation to two floors and that sustains a subsidiary ionic columns order. The lower part of the building, its floor bass, opens as an arcaded Gallery, contrasting its simplicity with the wealth of the upper floor, in which open balconies topped with curved Gables and garlands.
The Porta Pia was commissioned to the artist within the same idea of urban reorganization of the city is located at the end of an avenue where most of the large buildings of Rome are located. It is the anticlassical and Miguel Ángel antinormativa. Any cover up to that time had as reference the Roman triumphal arches. miguel Ángel breaks this subject to pose one of the Mannerist programs more anticlasicos of Italy. Door is organized vertically, with a lower body that serves as a basement and an attic in also vertical shot. There is no allusion to the technical combination of the orders in its development. A great trim separates two bodies, appear in the upper oculos of geometric design and naturalistic, as a tape aspect, in the lower open spans framed in a broken trim including door fits. It is designed in a monumental way, framed with pilasters, without a particular order since they gone the capital, supporting the pediment, triangular and party, directly on the shaft. These load-bearing elements are used and are conceived exclusively with an ornamental character. At the top, in the auction, coalesce a number of decorative elements of naturalistic and geometric character, which convey a look varied to the building without losing it monumental.
The rich design of Miguel Ángel architecture and completely personal choices, are displayed in the project for the Church of San Giovanni dei Fiorentini; the Miguel Ángel abandons the monumental character. It's a building for a small community, which is linked to a typology of national church, but without using any traditional plant. The variety is the dominant feature, the ground melts a polygon with eight sides with a Greek cross plan, whose arms are finished in apses.
After his death, the architects will no longer the monumental order advocated by him, not even his disciples, who will continue to or a decorative Mannerist tendency or a classical eclecticism.
http://www.christusrex.org/www1/sistine/0-Tour.html ; The chapel Sistine and Miguel Ángel.
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