Biography of Zar de Rusia Miguel o Mikhail Feodorovitch Romanov III (1596-1645)

Tsar of Russia born in Moscow July 12, 1596 and died in the same city July 12, 1645. Son of Fiodor Nikitich Romanov and María Iconomasia, came from the family of the first wife of Ivan the Terrible. His full name was Mikhail Fiodorovich Romanov III.

He ascended the throne February 11, 1613, chosen by the Russian General States (Zemski Sobor), thus there was a dynastic Medley at the head of the Russian Government, which was replaced the family Rurik by the Romanov.Miguel saw in his childhood the deep crisis that shook Russia since the death of Iván the Terrible in 1584. This crisis was motivated by the succession struggles among the different candidates for the throne, mainly between Feodor Ivanovich and Boris Godunov, which ended with the ascension to the throne of the latter. The father of Miguel, Fyodor, was forced by Godunov to become a clergyman and his mother confined in the convent of Kostroma. However, Boris Godunov died shortly after and was succeeded by Feodor; After the reign of the latter, a series of fake descendants of Iván the Terrible claimed the throne of Russia. While all this was happening, Miguel was in exile in Beloozaero with his uncle Prince Boris Cherkasskii. The persecution to the Romanov family responded to the fear of Godunov that these to be done with the power, since they could legitimately claim the succession to the throne as descendants of Iván the Terrible.

At age 17, Miguel was proclaimed Tsar of all the Russias by the States-General. His rise to the throne ended the period of decomposition and turmoil that prevailed in Russia at that time. Miguel was a Czar without enough personality to take charge of the Government of Russia and unable to cope with the ascendant power of the nobles and the Zemski Sobor. When he/she was crowned there was only sixteen years old and poor education. Government committed to Zemski Sobor and then to his father, who had become by that time Patriarch of the Orthodox Church and assumed the tasks of Government until 1633, year in which he/she died. The Tsar, unable to govern Russia and completely in the hands of the nobles of the country, attended as a spectator the transformation of Zemski Sobor of consultative body in Executive and Legislative Assembly, so the power of this body grew in a disproportionate manner.

The young Tsar was found at the head of a country ruined by continuous wars and threatened by foreign armies that were on its borders and had even invaded the U.S. border; the internal situation was chaotic because of the bands of Cossacks, Tatars and poles which ravaged villages and even cities, looting everything were walking. The Tsar could not even trust his Government team, in which there was corruption and only obeyed the dictates of ambition. In addition, Treasury was on the verge of bankruptcy, what motivated the pay of the army be deferred just when his presence became more urgent for national interests.

In foreign policy, clashes with Sweden and Poland ended up in two separate capitulation by Russia. With the Stolboro peace of 1617, signed with Sweden, Russia obtained Novgorod but lost their possessions in the Baltic. With the Poles, another great threat outside of Russia, since they claimed the inheritance rights of Prince Ladislaus, achieved the signing of a truce of fourteen years known as the truce of Viasna, whose term Miguel tried in vain to recover the lost territories, but was defeated and had to capitulate and sign the peace of Polaenovka in 1634, by which Russia was abandoning Smoliensk. In the same way, he/she had to resign to help the Cossacks of the Dnieper in its fight against the Ottoman Empire, due to the weak Russian position. On the other hand, this succession of agreements and treaties allowed to concentrate the energies of Russia in the national reconstruction and to establish the bases of the subsequent splendor of the Tsarist Russia.

To his people and to the army's territorial losses it undertook a campaign of conquest and colonization of Siberia which ended with a resounding success.

In terms of domestic politics, he/she instituted in 1636 the secondment of the man to the ground, according to the guidelines that the high nobility marked him to ensure the permanence of the medieval privileges; reorganized the tax system; the trade of the Englishmen in Arkhangelsk, restored at the time allowing the Netherlands to found colonies in Tula. These concessions failed to respond both to its inability to oppose the wishes of foreign powers as to the desire to resurrect the Russian trade; most likely it were the second since the treaties were advantageous for Russia and were accompanied by the creation of fairs and trade markets. It also allowed the collaboration, or the intrusion of foreign experts who helped modernize the military and industry. He/She maintained the momentum colonizer of the territory of the Siberian, as his immediate predecessors had done.

The most outstanding work of the that Fyodor controlled the will of his son coward was the increase in the Russian diplomatic activity, as well as commercial contacts with the powers of Western Europe. Either by discussed capacity of the Tsar or the interests of the Russian ruling classes, the truth is that some of the reforms carried out during his tenure were the basis of future imperial greatness and the reorganization of the Russian State.

On the death of the father of Miguel, Fyodor, was the mother of Tsar which held the top job in the Government; This was mainly devoted to preparing the succession of Miguel by Alexei.

JACJ