Biography of Molière (1622-1673)

French dramatist, born in Paris from January 15, 1622 and died in his hometown of February 17, 1673. Although his real name was Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, it has become the story of the universal theatre with his literary pseudonym of Molière, adopted at the age of twenty-one, when he/she decided to devote themselves fully to the art of Talia. Author of a dazzling theatrical production that sinks its roots in the best tradition of Greco-Roman classical satire for fustigar with vigour and humour to the society of his time, achieved great fame as an interpreter of his own works and created some drama archetypes - as the protagonists of his pieces teachers Tartuffe (1664), the MISANTHROPE (1666) and the miser (1668) - which places him on the cusp of dramatic literature.



Born in the bosom of a wealthy family which belongs to the artisan bourgeoisie - his father, upholsterer of the King Luis XIII (1601-1643), proudly held the honorary post of valet of the monarch-, inherited in 1636, when he/she was only fourteen years of age, all privileges enjoyed by his father in Palace. But these inheritance rights that fell upon him as the eldest son did not get away the young Jean-Baptiste Poquelin of his early love of theatre, instilled by his maternal grandfather Luis Cressé, who opened a new and fascinating universe before his eyes when he/she took him to see the performance of the pretenders of the Pont Neuf (new bridge) and to know the comedians of the Hôtel de Bourgogne. Representations of Tabarin, a famous actor who achieved notoriety at the beginning of the 17TH century Paris by its singular ability to improvise, captivated the young Molière in that new bridge close to your House, so far make him hate the charge of "upholsterer supplier of her Majesty" had assured him his father, from whom he/she inherited a realistic view of the world and a conception of moral prejudice-free human beings. His mother, Marie Cressé, who died when the future playwright was still a young boy, inherited a prone taciturn mood, sometimes sadness and bitterness.

He received as a child careful academic training at the prestigious College de Clermont, run by the Jesuits and frequented by the scions of the Parisian aristocracy. His intellectual curiosity, which prompted him to conceive of the early project of translating the French De rerum natura, Lucretius (99-55 BC), influenced - according to some biographers - by the doctrines of Pierre Gassendi (1592-1655) epicurean philosophical and humanistic of the Freethinker teachings woke up in their classrooms Savinien de Cyrano de Bergerac (1619-1655). Other scholars of his life hypothesize that at the centro de estudios befriended the Prince of Conti, who would become, years later, patron of his troupe.

From the death of his grandfather Luis Cressé (1638) and the conclusion of their academic formation at Clermont College (1639), the young Jean-Baptiste Poquelin began to distance himself from his family, fleeing from that office of upholsterer who sought to leave his father (despite this, was forced to replace him in such requirement at least on one occasion(: when travelled with the Court up to Narbonne in 1642, as a real upholsterer). Meanwhile, he/she had begun to pursue higher studies in law at the University of Orleans, where closely - related to commune with all its postulates subversives--with members of various factions of freethinkers and known as "Libertines" unbelievers. Apparently, the future playwright came to obtain a Bachelor's degree in law in 1642, although he/she never practiced law, as already by then he/she had decided to devote itself fully to the theatrical passion that came subjugating him since his adolescence.

Friends of that confusing period of his youth the Béjart family, included, in a prominent place, a clan of comedians that belonged to the young and beautiful Madeleine, artist of dubious reputation - as all of your time - and first girlfriend of Jean-Baptiste Poquelin. In 1643, year in which it was determined finally to go firmly into the slippery properties of Talia, took the artistic name of Molière and wrote a letter to his father in which, after renouncing his "real upholsterer" privileges in favour of his brother Juan, claimed you the part that might be entitled to maternal inheritancein order to reverse it entirely in his first big project theatre. Act followed, was installed in the house occupied by the Béjart at la Rue of the Perle, and, with his new family, professional and economic support added to property which he/she had inherited from his mother, he/she founded L'Illutre Theatre (the illustrious Theatre), a touring company that lived their first setbacks within the nursing stage, because at the time it was very harsh to make the competition the consecrated women of the theater of the Marais and the Hotel companies of Bourgogne. Judging by the Association Act giving faith of the founding of L'Illutre Theatre, dated June 30 of that year of 1643, the adventure of this collective brave Street barely lasted two years, as in 1645 the survivors of this game company already had joined a company of greater significance, the directed by actor Charles Dufresnethat it had the protection of the Duke of Épernon, Governor of the southern province of Guyenne. Biographers of the playwright Parisian handled, in addition, other valuable document of this era: an official role, dated 1644, in which for the time first Jean-Baptiste Poquelin signs with the name of Molière.

For a couple of years, Molière walked with Dufresne company touring the South of France (Cadillac, Bordeaux, Toulouse, Agen...), sometimes following the Duke of Épernon in their travel, and sometimes traveling and acting on their own. In 1647, to cease in his position as Governor Aristocrat protector of the comedians, itinerant company hosted the protection and patronage of the Prince of Conti, which expanded its business horizons towards the Southeast (Pezenas, Montpellier, Narbonne, Béziers...) and allowed the approach of provincial tanned players toward the dream goal of Paris. The Repertoire of the company - which became the main source of learning of Molière - contained tragedies, comedies and farces, these latest updates on stage in imitation of the Commedia dell' Italian art, which still retained its validity in France in the mid-17TH century. Given his innate condition of monster from the scene, the Parisian was becoming the most outstanding figure of his company, which ended up assuming a series of obligations that gave a good idea of his passion for everything related to the art of Talia. Not only was, in fact, the author of some of the works of his repertoire and commissioned to lead your staging but also organizer of trips, the "Entrepreneur" seeking credit and "subsidies" that is to say, protection of nobles wealthy with artistic whims - and, in short, the most active member of the group, constantly occupied in the recruitment of new players and the relationships with numerous artisans to, at the time, provided the necessary ammunition to a theatrical collective (tailors, carpenters, stagehands, etc.). It shone, in addition, with singular brilliance for his extraordinary talent for the representation, as well clear in the testimony of his contemporary Donneau de Visé - one of the pioneers of modern, founder of Le Mercure Galant (1672) journalism - was who came to see him on the boards and was fascinated by its variety of interpretive records: "was an actor from head to toe; seemed to have several voices; all spoke on it, and with a step, a smile, a nod or a moving head, was to imagine things that the more talkative one would have not been able to express in an hour".

This extensive experience as itinerant comedian was instrumental in forging the peculiar style of Molière, in which there were tracks indelible reading, study and good use of the masterpieces of classical authors origens, but also of the contact, in different scenarios of provinces, with Italian companies that were still taking advantage to the old Archetypes of the Commedia dell'Arte; with collective Spanish experts in the staging of the best jewels of the lopesca new comedy; and, in general, with a number of actors and farandules of small entity - acrobats, jugglers, minstrels, jugglers, etc.-which continued exhibiting at scene the old resources of medieval farce. The sum of all these generic methods (classical satire, farce of the middle-ages, Renaissance and Baroque comedy) threw for fruit acid, corrosive and brilliant comedy of Molière, a perfect example of synthesis and overcoming of the best tradition of the Western theater known up to then. Thus emerged the new dramatic texts of Molière, many of them lost in our days, strongly oriented to the comic genre of the divertissements ("leasure", i.e. parts under that, like the appetizer in Spain, were represented at the intervals of other major works, or intermediates of dances and music concerts). Notable among these first comic incursions of Molière in dramatic writing, the titled L'etourdi (the Atolondrado, premiered in Lyon in 1655) and Le depit amoureux (loving spite, for the first time on stage at Beziers, in 1656).

Substantial part of the long process of learning, dragged out over twelve years of itinerant comedian, was direct contact with human types and varied customs that made up the life of provinces. On foot, on horseback or in the wagons carrying belongings of the company, Molière toured the southern half of France exercising his prodigious skills as observer of the "human comedy", with such dedication to the thorough analysis of what was discovered to its around that was, years later, the nickname of "The Viewer" - emerged, apparently, acute pen of his friend Boileau (1636-1711). This constant attention to its immediate surroundings human types and behavior would take him after abundant material for the psychological configuration of their characters.

A severe setback to Molière and his companions of theatrical career took place in 1657, when the Prince of Conti, recently converted to the janseanismo, withdrew its protection to the collective. Far from flinching by this setback, Molière, whose fame was beginning to circulate through the theatrical gossip of Paris, undertook the difficult enterprise in his hometown, where, after the sobering failure of Illutre Theatre, knew it was needed under cover of the greatest patron of the country: the footballer monarch - seasoning, Luis XIV (1638-1715), the Almighty "Sun King". Asserting its good offices as a "businessman" and negotiator, the Parisian playwright got a contract to represent in the Palacio of the Louvre, across the Court, one their modest divertissements, entitled the love doctor, which was announced in the agenda of the October 24, 1658, along with the tragedy Nicomedes, Pierre Corneille (1606-1684). The dismal failure of this work, leaving well patent the decline of the once exalted author of Rouen, contrasted vividly with the resounding successes of humble comedians of provinces, authentic unknown to the select audience of gala Court. The own Luis XIV, excited about the representation offered by Molière, gave his company the title of Troupe de Monsieur, frère du Roi unique, and assigned as the seat of their future representations the small stage of the Petit Bourbon, annex to the Palacio of the Louvre.

In November of that same year, Molière company began to put staged their successful divertissements in the theatre, which were soon expelled the Italian comedians who alternated their representations with the Parisian playwright, to leave this as sole holder of the room. The tumultuous victories harvested by their first performances - which aroused the envy of the acclaimed actors of the Bourgogne Hotel - you encouraged to renew their repertoire of works and its cast of performers, aware that the meager itinerant program offered in provinces was not enough to meet the expectations of the demanding public of the Court. Thus, in 1659 hired some of the best representatives of the moment (as the famous Jodelet, only survivor of the comedians who triumphed once in Pont-Neuf), and decided to squish the Atolondrado, the loving defiance, of medieval-inspired antics and the rest of the MPs who had been offered both his travelling theatre performance, already well known to many fans of his work in Paris. In a dramatic turn of his creative activity, he/she abandoned the ritual concatenation of situations and stereotypical characters - as celebrated by the public of provinces - and decided to confront the satire of courteous today, backed by their specialization in the treatment of comic issues (the company of the Hôtel de Bourgogne, threatened by the success of Molière in the humorous genresIt had been obliged to evolve toward the tragedy). It was, as at the end of 1659, led to the tables of the Petit Bourbon its applauded farce Les Précieuses ridicules (the ridiculous beautiful, premiered on 18 November of that year), a hilarious satire of the extreme pedantry that was in vogue in the Paris of the time. The premiere of this piece of Molière was a real event in the forums and artistic and cultural gossip from the gala capital, and placed permanently to the Parisian dramatist at the top of the French of mid-17TH-century theatre (both as well, was that the Theatre was assigned to your company the following year, after the demolition of the Petit Bourbon in order to expand the Louvre, du Palais-Royal)that from then would be its permanent headquarters).

In 1661, following the death of Cardinal Mazarin (1602-1661), Luis XIV began to personally guided the destiny of the country, without recourse to the support of other valid; by then, Molière lived already comfortably installed in the Royal Palace, enjoying the affection and admiration of the sovereign. At that time his stage "espanolista" data, arising from his admiration for the comedies of entanglement and swashbuckling - that were all the rage in the Paris of the time, adapted or directly copied by some French dramatists as relevant as Scarron (1610-1660), Rotrou (1606-1650) and Boisrobert (1589-1662)-. Expert on Spanish culture, history and language, Molière was regular Viewer in the theaters where Hispanic companies that extended their tours by France and arrived to Paris - as Sebastián de Prado and Francisco Bezón, who in 1660 solemnizaron features the wedding of Luis XIV with María Teresa of Austria, daughter of Felipe IV (1605-1665) - acting, and he/she tried to play his hits in his own theatrical production, as it was well clear in Dom Garcie de Navarre (Don García de Navarra, 1661) - without a doubt, the worst of his works - and at L' École des maris (the school for husbands, 1661) - inspired by the Spanish comedy husband makes wife and treatment move custom, of the Cantabrian Antonio Hurtado de Mendoza (1586-1644).

The poor fortune of these "Pro-Spanish" parts not prevented him from harvesting, at the same time, his strident new successes with other works of different inspiration, as Les fachesux (the Importunate), premiered in the summer of that same year of 1661, in the course of a party offered by Fouquet, Minister of finance, in honor of the "Sun King". With the installation of this work, Molière became the pioneer of a new genre that would make all the rage in Super-capitals the second half of the 17TH century French salons: the ballet, object of the theatrical passion of the own Luis XIV, who since then redoubled favors that had been granted to Parisian playwright, which gave rise to the resurgence of the envious that he/she felt his increasingly numerous enemies. True was that the Royal protection and friendship of other great writers peer - such as the aforementioned Boileau and La Fontaine (1621-1695) fabulist - strengthened notably Molière figure in political and intellectual circles of Paris; but it was no less than the spite of rivals, joined the inquina awakened by his sharp satires directed against various social groups (frustrated writers, courtiers pedants, ideologues Libertines, rich bourgeois, medical impostors, self-righteous hypocrites, are women, husbands tricked), increased the number of those who were directly harmed by its acid and corrosive theatre. So, in 1662 all opponents - led by Montfleury, actor of the Hôtel de Bourgogne - lashed out at him, as a result of his recent marriage to Armande Béjart ("Menou"), an actress of his company, twenty-one years younger than the great playwright, who happened to be the younger sister of his former mistress, Madeleine, although the gossips claimed that, in factShe was the natural daughter of this, fruit of their "sinful" relations with the own Molière. Accused it was, in short, of IMPIETY and immorality, by marrying his supposed daughter.

The replica of the great playwright - who had just address the property issue in his two most recent creations: L' École des maris (the school for husbands, 1661) and L' École des femmes (the school of women, 1662) - was not made to wait. By means of two virulent theatrical writings - critique de "L ' École des femmes" (critique of "The school of women", 1663) and L'impromptu de Versailles (improvisation of Versailles, 1663)-, fully entered the controversy knowing that still count on the favor and the admiration of the monarch, who, in addition to their shelter and protection within their own Palace, gave you of contino huge financial rewards as a "bel esprit" (something like "a high spirit"). The enemies of Molière - that had served all procedures at its disposal to try to sink you, slander and libel to physical aggression, going through the complaint to the judicial authorities-, had to forfeit to the brilliant defense wielded by the writer himself, and certainly to the unwavering support that was still offering the King; more nevertheless ceased to harass you with new derogatory attacks during the rest of his days.

Amidst these intrigues, a theatrical hustle would absorb the greater part of his time until his premature death, which no doubt contributed exhaustion wear and the accumulation of tensions. The rift with his young wife soon emerge, and, although there was apparently a late marital reconciliation, the truth is that his failed marriage accentuated his corrosive vision of human relations and overshadowed its last years of existence. But the professional successes encouraged him to continue delivering in body and soul to his theatrical vocation, without neglecting at any time multiple obligations imposed by his condition of man of many: continued writing tirelessly, interpreting his works more difficult roles, hiring and dismissing actors, tirelessly seeking loans and grants, varying its repertoire and attending, in short, to the demands of the powerful claiming the presence of your company in many festivals held in court. In the spring of 1664, during the celebration of "The pleasures of la Isla Encantada" - one of the most dazzling festive programs from the reign of Luis XIV, verified between days 7 and 14 of this year-, premiered two works composed expressly for so solemn occasion: La princesse d'Elide (the Princess of Elida, put in scene 8 May) and the first three acts of Tartuffe (Tartuforepresented on 12 May) that provoked the indignation of the Parisian devotees - especially the Compagnie du Saint Sacrement de l'Autel (confraternity of the Holy Sacrament), the Archbishop of Paris and the same mother of Luis XIV - and returned to place Molière at the epicenter of a bitter controversy. Immediate prohibition of representing Tartufo, dictated by the King under the pressure of the ecclesiastical powers (father Roullé, parish priest of Saint-Barthélemy, called in a leaflet Molière "Devil's meat that deserves to be condemned to the stake"), not discouraged to Parisian playwright, accustomed to dealing with how many enemies were crossed on his way: convinced of the artistic quality and the civic values of his workfought hard for five years to achieve is to authorize the release of their final version in 1669, after having tested the staging of a "sweetened" adaptation which also was immediately banned in 1667.

Meanwhile, he/she was still producing new works that fully substantiated his condition of theatrical genius. After the premiere of Don Juan ou Le festin de pierre (Don Juan or the guest of stone, 1665) - based on the trickster of Seville and the stone guest, of the Tirso de Molina (do - 1648) in Madrid, although centered more in the denunciation of social hypocrisy that amatorios fanfare of the character of the mercedario-, Luis XIV returned to publicly honor Molière - to the despair of his host of rivals -, now its theatrical collective giving the title of "Troupe du Roi" ("company of the King"). Shortly afterwards, at the request of the monarch, wrote and premiered L'Amour medecin (doctor love, 1665), a comedy "proposal - according to the testimony of the own Molière-, written, learned and represented in five days", which gives account of its amazing work capacity.

The following year, the premiere of another of his masterpieces, Le misanthrope (the Misanthrope, 1666), raised protests in much of the spectators that until then had been providing its unconditional applause, due to little or no comedy of its protagonist, Alceste, one of the most accomplished by an author that, at its forty-four years of agealready made public their total disappointment to men and society of his time. Despite this relative cooling of the enthusiastic fervor of followers, followed by writing great works that were premiered successfully in its fixed headquarters of the Palais-Royal, as Le Médecin malgré lui (the doctor sticks, 1666) and Amphitryon (host, 1668), at the time who tried to satisfy the requests of the Court, with playful intermediate as the pastorale comique (comical pastoral1666) and Le sicilien ou L'Amour peintre (the Sicilian or painted love, 1666), intended to entertain the King and the aristocracy in the recesses of the dances and musical shows palatial. Some of these works of entertainment, such as Monsieur de Pourceaugnac (the Lord of Pourceaugnac, 1669) and Le bourgeois gentilhomme (the bourgeois gentleman, 1670) both premiered at two festivals held in the Palace of Chambord - passed then to the programme of the Théâtre du Palais-Royal, where it could be enjoyed by a wide and varied audience.

The aforementioned version "sweetened" of Tartufo, premiered in the Palais-Royal August 5, 1667 disguised titled Panulphe ou L'imposteur (Panulfo or Sham), was also - as already noted above - immediately banned and removed from the poster (the Archbishop of Paris was threatened with excommunication who read the work or attend its representation). Neither surrendered Molière to this new setback of fortune, which opposed again all the vigor, freshness and the quality of his playwriting. And although the premiere of another of his major works, L'avare (the miser, 1668), not reaped the success expected by its author among critics and the public, the lifting of the ban that rested on Tartuffe led to its immediate setting in the Palais-Royal (1669), where all of Paris paid to see the representations by the own Molière, in the midst of a sweeping victory that had to be recognized even by the worst enemies of the Parisian playwright.

In 1671, the premiere in one of those large courtly solemnities of the tragedia-ballet Psiche (psyche), composed by Molière in collaboration with Corneille, Quinault (1635-1688) and the choreographer Lully (1632-1687), Cheers, applause and cheers filled the halls of the Palacio des Tuileries, and placed the Parisian playwright - head brilliance and lavishness of the event - at the peak of his fame. Molière, who had already worked closely with the great choreographer of Italian origin in the assemblies of other diversions courtiers as the Princess of Elida, doctor love, the pastoral comic and the bourgeois gentleman, believed to have found a new reef to ensure your company's economic sustainability, and continued working with Lully in other parts as the comtesse d' La (the Countess of Escarbagnas)premiered at the Palace of Saint-Germain at the end of 1671. But the ambition of the musician, dancer and Florentine composer, as favoured in the French court as the own Molière - not in vain had been appointed in 1652 "Composer of the music Instrumental" Luis XIV, and ascended in 1661 to "Superintendent and composer of the Chamber of the King" - was filed on the aspirations of the company of Molière, who lost all the money that had been invested in the reforms needed to adapt its headquarters to musical performances, as a result of the concession to Lully's monopoly in the Organization of operas, ballets and all events of kind couple.

The premiere of new great works - as the maddened farce Les fourberies de Scapin (chicaneries of Scapin, 1671) and the comedy Les femmes savantes (the wise women, 1672), which resumed the theme of the ridiculous precious - leaving well patent the lucidity of a Molière who, in those years, was receiving only sorrows and troubles in his private life. The betrayal of Lully wine to join his friend Racine (1639-1699), which birló to the best actress in his company and put his original works - until then represented by Molière - available to other groups of actors. To make matters worse, a serious lung condition began to appear him in 1672, year in which suffered two irreparable losses: the of its ancient partner of youth Madeleine Béjart, and the philosopher François of the Mothe of Vayer (1588-1672), which had maintained an intimate relationship of friendship during their lifetime. Sorry for his serious illness, returned to attack the medical science in the Ballet Le malade imaginaire (the imaginary invalid, 1673), which was held for the first time on the stage of the Palais-Royal the 10 February 1673, with the own Molière in the role of protagonist, despite his delicate state of health. The resounding successes of this first representation excited to the Parisian playwright until the end of force you to keep the work in poster, while his fellow cast begged him to suspend functions without further delay, in view of its accelerated physical deterioration. But Molière refused to interrupt a resounding triumph and followed embodying tables on the role of Argan until, in the course of the fourth representation of this piece - verified February 17 that year-, a violent access of cough and vomiting was filed in his work, which was not without prejudice to that great man of theatreapparently spare, continue forward with the function until it managed to conclude their work and hear the cheers of audience. Taken to his house, he/she died a few hours without being stripped even of the yellow dress that had gone to the scene (where it is believed that the old superstition that leads people in the theater to abhor that color comes).

During their painful agony, two priests on refused to give spiritual aid claiming their relatives, and once deceased, the priest of Saint-Eustache, parish which belonged to Molière, wanted to prevent that they give Christian burial. It had to be the intervention of Luis XIV - precise after the widow of the playwright would have thrown on its feet--so they bury it in sacred soil, and even so the Archbishop of Paris forbade the burial will take place in the light of the day, so it was finally buried in the darkness of the night in the cemetery of Saint-Josephin a secret ceremony only attended by his family and closest friends.


Throughout a life consecrated, both in public and in private, to the art of Talia, Molière wrote a long thirty plays, among which mention some not mentioned in previous paragraphs, as the farce Sganarelle ou Le cocu imaginaire (Sganarelle, or the imaginary Cuckold, 1660), the Ballet Le mariage forced (marriage to force1664), the heroico-pastoril comedy Melicerte (Melicerta, 1666), the farce Georges Dandin (1668) and the comedy Les amants magnifiques (magnificent lovers, 1670). Aside from his numerous theatrical texts conceived as parts of a great coreografico-musical show, traditional criticism has been classifying specifically dramatic production of Molière in farces, comedies of customs and character comedies; However, this documentation is not entirely accurate, because in each and every one of his works they are reflected, in varying degrees, these three forms of humour (that is, it is very difficult to discern between what is farce, manners or study of characters in works such as El Tartuffe, the Misanthrope or the miser).

The precious ridiculous, defined by the own Molière as "comic farce full of bats", is also a good example of this hybrid presentation of comic genres, already that its farsesca nature adds a fun cool of the courtesans of the time customs and a vigorous study of the character of the main characters, which exhibit a defect inherent to humans at any time and place (the pedantry). For its part, the school of women is a sharp satire that, anchored in the best tradition of misogynist of the medieval farce, liaises with similar works of French 18th-century theatre. His argument is nourished by abundant wisdom from assertions ("woman is fickle and changeable", "love just always triumph", "better sweetness that hardness," "the naturalness to the affectation is preferable", etc.); and, at the same time, reflects a personal situation of the author - marital unhappiness - which, in a way, is the result of a social scourge that affects much of the men and women of his time: the bad marriage policy, approving situations as little consistent with human nature as the marriage of a man with a woman who folded into age.

With the improvisation of Versailles, Molière, eager to replicate in their own land to those who had slandered, offers a finished sample of a procedure so Cervantes as "the theatre within theatre". The playwright and the members of your company are, at the same time, actors and protagonists of the work, and are subject to a mock test that allows Molière to make public his theatrical Poetics, in which Queen a mandatory standard: have fun above any other attempt, but always using the truth and naturalness.

Tartuffe, the Misanthrope and the miser are, without a doubt, the culmination of the dramatic art of Molière, which offered, in the presentation of their three respective protagonists, two Archetypes of universal validity. And although nuanced gravity of the second of these works was to divert him comic runways to introduce you fully to the field of drama, the truth is that the Parisian playwright - perhaps disappointed by scant enthusiasm that the misanthropic aroused among their faithful followers - regressed in their later works to this fun, festive and ingenious space where he/she was more comfortable. Thus, in the bourgeois gentleman he/she directed all the poignancy of his pen against the grotesque figure of Monsieur Jourdain, a rich merchant whose delusions of grandeur lead him to oppose the wedding of her daughter with Cleonte, who considered not worthy of their status; tricked and ridiculed by everyone, Jourdain has just attending pleased the conjugal bond, once Coviello, servant of Cleonte, has made him believe that his master is a linajudo Ottoman Prince. Identical grotesque chafarrinones stained figure of Argan, the protagonist of the sick imagination, a hypochondriac who lives surrounded by galenos and feeds only on medicines, and so obsessed by their imaginary ailments that compels even her daughter to marry - against the will of the girl - doctor Diaforius, in order to permanently have a physician in your home.


BULGAKOV, M. A. life and work of the Lord of Molière (Barcelona: Montesinos, 1983).

ESCOFET, J. Molière, his life and work (Barcelona: General publications society, 1928).

DALLA VALLE, Daniela. Théophile to Molière: aspects of continuity (Santiago de Chile: Universitaria Ed., 1968).

GAXOTTE, P. Molière (Paris: Flammarion, 1977).

GÓMEZ DE LA SERNA, July. "Introduction" to MOLIÈRE: complete works (Madrid: Aguilar, 1961).

LARGE RAMOS, Mario. Molière (Barcelona: Editorial Labor, 1952).

HERNÁNDEZ, Francisco Javier. "Introduction" to MOLIÈRE: Tartuffe. The bourgeois gentleman. The imaginary invalid (Barcelona: Bruguera, 1981).

JOUVET, L. Molière et la Comédie classique (Paris: Gallimard, 1965).

PALMER, J. Molière, the painter of human nature (Buenos Aires: Ed. Zamora, 1957).

SOLANA, M. Molière (Mexico: Ed. boots, 1944).

THOORENS, L. life and creative passion of Molière (Barcelona: Montaner & Simon, 1964).