Biography of José Tadeo Monagas (1785-1868)

Venezuelan military and political leader, President of the Venezuelan Republic in two occasions (1847-1851 and 1855-1858), born in Maturín 28 October 1785 and died in Caracas on November 18, 1868. Son of Francisco José Monagas and Perfecta Burgos Villasana, his real name is Jude.

He began his military career as a second lieutenant of cavalry, under the command of Colonel Manuel Villapol, in the army of Santiago Mariño. Their first participation in combat occurred in 1813 in mouths of the ODP; that same year he/she distinguished himself in the fighting in Matirin, against the realistic forces Lorenzo Fernández de la Hoz and Domingo Monteverde.

On February 3, 1814 participated in the siege of La Puerta, on March 31 in the battle of Bocachica, on April 11 at the site of Arao and at the first battle of Carabobo, after which he/she was promoted to Colonel. With this setting, he/she took part in the battle of Maturín on 14 October, in the Urica December 5 and again in Maturin on December 11. The following year, he/she fought in San Diego de Cabrutica, in sheets of Lejarazo, in El Palmar, in the attack on the city of Aragua de Barcelona, maneuver of Angostura and the battle of the herd of Caracas. In 1816, he/she participated in the battle of Scorpion and the famous battle of El Juncal.

In 1817 he/she joined Simón Bolívar in the Eastern campaign and the following year he/she fought in the second battle of Carabobo against Pablo Morillo; He/She subsequently took part in the site of Semen and the battle of Ortiz. After several years of struggles continued, in 1821, he/she was promoted by Bolívar to the grade of general of division and the following year obtained the post of military of Barcelona, Civil Governor and Commander of the Department of the Orinoco.

In 1823, retired to their agricultural holdings of Maturin, he/she married Luisa Oriach Ladrón de Guevara. In the mid-1830 he/she returned to public life moved by political events in the country. The antibolivariana reaction that shook Venezuela threatened the territorial integrity of the Gran Colombia; as a result, José Tadeo oscillates between support and opposition to the territorial integrity of Gran Colombia. In 1831, with his brother José Gregorio, he/she promoted a movement in support of the reconstitution of the Gran Colombia. José Tadeo prompted the formation of a middle State composed of the provinces of Cumaná, Margarita and Guayana; in clear opposition to the independence that proposed the creation of a centralist Republic on the territory of the former captaincy General of Venezuela. José Tadeo was fond of a confederal system consisting of the totality of the Venezuelan provinces and which would like to join the great Colombia. In 1931 a neighborhood of Barcelona Council appointed as governors generals Mariño and José Tadeo, but the intervention of the President of the Republic José Antonio Páez was able to paralyze this independence project. José Tadeo, after this, withdrew to a more private life.

In 1834 elections gave power to José María Vargas, prompting an immediate military reaction led by José Tadeo. This insurrection has received the name of revolution of the reforms. Despite the failure of the movement, the same leaders benefited from a pardon through which put an end to the revolt.

In 1846 José Tadeo was presented the presidential elections with the support of Páez and President Carlos Soublette. He/She was elected President on January 20, 1847, position that he/she held until 1851. His policy was characterized by the break with conservatives and a series of measures very criticized by his opponents. The most significant fact of this first Government was the assault on the Congress of January 24, 1848, by which José Tadeo was able to submit to Congress and impose his personal power.

In 1851 he/she was elected to the Presidency his brother José Gregorio, who held the position until 1855, when José Tadeo returned to be chosen. During the Presidency of his brother, José Tadeo intervened in national politics widely influencing the decisions of José Gregorio. The new re-election of José Tadeo led a broad campaign of protests, as well as revolutionary outbreaks; Despite this he/she managed to enact a new Constitution in 1857, which legitimized his dictatorial tenure and extended the presidential term to six years. This aspect rose even more controversy than his re-election. Before the lifting of the general Julián Castro, José Tadeo resigned from the Presidency on March 15, 1858, and took refuge in the French legation in Caracas; It went into exile weeks later.

In 1864 he/she returned to Venezuela and grouped into your environment at all unhappy with the Presidency of Juan Crisóstomo Falcón. Despite his advanced age, José Tadeo stood in front of the Blue Revolution and succeeded in the overthrow of the Acting President Manuel Ezequiel Bruzual; it occupied Caracas in June 1868. The 27th José Tadeo, as General in Chief of the armies of the revolution, issued a series of decrees aimed at the reorganization of the administration of the country and said current Federal Constitution of 1864. It called elections for the Presidency of the country, which did not see José Tadeo, as he/she died of a pneumonia few months when they will convene.