Biography of Pablo. Conde de Cartagena y Marqués de la Puerta Morillo (1775-1837)

Spanish General, born in Fuentesecas (Zamora) on May 5, 1775 and died in Barèges (France) on July 27, 1837. The peacemaker, was called because it was commissioned by Fernando VII to put order in the Spanish colonies of America.

Morillo barely learned to read and write, and then turned to grazing until 1795. The following year, at the initiative of a friend of his father, he/she was sent to Salamanca to do some studies, he/she soon left to enter the service of the troops of the Royal Navy, where he/she was quickly climbing positions. He/She participated in several battles in Trafalgar (1805), of Bailén and the Extremadura. Thanks to his military training he/she was hired by King Fernando VII as head of the pacification expedition, organized in order to reconquer the American peoples. The expedition left Cadiz in February 1815 heading to the provinces of the new world. Morillo arrived at the eastern coast of Cumana and initiated the reconquest of Venezuela. Then he/she arrived in Santa Marta and thence projected his reconquest of New Granada (1815). After conquering Cartagena (1815), he/she went to Bogotá and at the end of 1816 traveled to Venezuela. It received some titles - as the count of Cartagena and Marquess of the gate in 1819 - recognition of actions taken during the site of Cartagena and the battle of La Puerta. In 1820 he/she received the order of Spain to re-establish peace in the colonies by means of an armistice. He/She returned to Spain and fought beside Fernando VII for the restoration of his absolute power. This appointed him head of its defence forces. In 1824 he/she emigrated to France, country where he/she died in 1837.

Morillo was highlighted ahead of the biggest crackdown on the Grenadian people, known as the regime of Terror; He/She offered freedom to slaves who denounce or submit to any revolutionary ringleader, which attracted many blacks, who joined in the defense of King Fernando VII. This form led to the scaffold some Colombian figures such as Camilo Torres, Francisco José de Caldas, Liborio Mejía and Jorge Tadeo Lozano, among others. Morillo published memoirs about the campaign in America and military tactics (written between 1826 and 1830).

Their parties, crafts, manifests and letters were published, reproduced, in the Gaceta de Madrid, in the Correo del Orinoco and Spanish bee.

His first writings, after its return to the Peninsula, are self-defense forces: "... to express to the Spanish nation on the occasion of the slander... published against him in... last April in the Gazette of the island of Leon, under the name of Enrique Somoyar" (Madrid, 1821), "reply to the libelous slander that the fugitive American of this Court has made against him from Bordeaux D. Andrés Level de Goda" (Madrid1822), and "Reply from Lieutenant General... with the opinion that military in the first days of July about his conduct has the majority of the Committee on measures presented to the current extraordinary courts" (Madrid, 1823).

His papers are in the Academy's history a collection: catalogue de la collection Pablo Morillo count of Cartagena (Madrid: Real Academia de la Historia, 1985-1988).

He received, among other distinctions, the great cross of Isabel the Catholic (1816) and the great cross of San Fernando (1817).


GIL NOVALES, Alberto: The patriotic societies. Madrid: Tecnos, 1975.

DELIGHT and PIÑUELA, José: "migration policy in Spain during the reign of Fernando VII", Congress of the Spanish Association for the advancement of science. Madrid: 1919, pp. 101-143.