Biography of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)

Composer and Austrian musician born in Salzburg on January 27, 1756 and died in Vienna on December 5, 1791. He was the great child prodigy of Western music and one of the most important musicians of classicism. Despite the brevity of their existence, because only he lived thirty-five years, his life was very intense, musically speaking. He was baptized with the name of Johannes Chrysóstomus Wolfgangus Theopolis Mozart Pertl (the nickname of "Amadeus" put it is he himself, a synonym of Latin from the Greek Zeofilos, ' who loves God'). He wrote more than six hundred compositions, among which, roughly, are forty-six symphonies, twenty masses, hundred and seventy-eight piano sonatas, twenty-seven concertos for piano, six violin, twenty-three operas, other sixty orchestral compositions and other hundreds of works.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.

His works were collected by Ludwig Von Köchel in 1862, hence the letter "K" followed by a number that is always used for cataloguing your compositions.

Life

Son of Leopold Mozart, musician in the service of the Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg, and Anna María Pertl, Mozart's life has been one of the most studied in the history of music. Not in vain was a famous child prodigy, perhaps the most famous in the history of music. The young Wolfgang grew up in the company of his sister Anna, who took him to four and a half years of age (both were the sole survivors of seven siblings, something common with the high mortality of the time). His father made both small two miracles on the piano, but in particular focused on his son, who made progress through a systematic and rigorous work.

Leopold Mozart, Member since archiepiscopal Chapel of Salzburg and teacher of violin, he quickly became aware of the huge task which would have as an educator of Wolfgang. The young musician played the harpsichord with four years, began to compose the five, six skillfully played the harpsichord and the violin, he could read music at sight and had an amazing ability to improvise musical phrases. Skilled at math and with a prodigious memory, all these virtues were seen as miraculous by its parent, intelligent, proud and religious man who was taken as an obligation education and the cultivation of the arts of his son. In fact, despite the success achieved by the publication of a book on the art of the violin the same year his son was born, he left all of the tasks that were not strictly relating to its official position to devote himself completely to the formation of his son.

Not missing anyone who has seen so much interest from his father as a mere exploitation. The truth is that for Mozart the figure of his father was always oppressive and authoritarian, and this was an image that accompanied him throughout his life.

Travel

Soon they began journeys, since Leopold decided to take the talent of his son to every corner of the old Europe where his interpretive capacity could rating. The first of them led them to Munich, and the second nothing less than to Vienna to play in court at Schönbrunn Palace. Following the success, started an extensive journey through Western Europe in Paris and London were the fundamental scales. Musically this trip meant the touchdown for the young Mozart with instrumental music (far from the tradition of Salzburg and Vienna) and the Paris opera and symphonies, and Italian operas. During the trip, Mozart composed a series of sonatas for piano and violin, other piano pieces, their first symphonies, and some arias and pieces of religious music. He also gave concerts as a pianist, and was also presented as a composer and improviser, and as violinist and organist.

In these early years was overflowing work, both by composing his first commissions (the small oratorio Die Schuldigkeit des ersten Gebots, KV 35; and the school drama Apollo et Hyacinthus, KV 38) as to follow strict education that his father provided him. In fact, Mozart not stepped on a school, but that his education was provided by his own father or tutors.

In 1767, now in Vienna, Mozart was commissioned imperial compose opera buffa semplice ('the feigned silly', KV 51), La finta although it was not represented. Before returning to Salzburg left compounds the singspiel Bastian and Bastiana (50 KV), a solemn mass, a Concerto for trumpet, several symphonies and his first lieder. At this time the Viennese musicians did not see with good eyes a young composer to do so good music, and believed that his father was the real author of many compositions. These intrigues did not dent in Leopold and his son, but predisposed both to be aware that not everyone was in favour of them, despite the triumphant tone of his tour. In short, the road would not be as easy as it looked.

With only fourteen years, in 1769, he was appointed "konzermeister" ('master of concerts') of the Archbishop of Salzburg. However, the charge did not include an economic allocation, which was supplemented with a field trip. Thus, it undertook a new journey with his father by Italy which, in this case, took him to Naples. The success harvested in all Italy was spectacular, reason for which he was awarded the order of the Golden Spur, with the title of "cavaliere". Yet, despite travel and obligations concert, Mozart continued studying and composing, as well as putting in the Philharmonic Academy of Bologna, one of the most important centers of musical scholarship of the time. In December 1770, he presented his work Mithridates, King of Pontus in Milan, which represented the culmination of his first long stay in Italy. On the other hand, Mozart met Giovanni Martini, an important theoretician of the music of the moment that the composer felt great affection throughout his life.

In August 1771 he undertook his second trip to the Latin country, after spending a few months in Salzburg. In October of that same year his Ascanio in Alba was represented in Milan on the occasion of a marriage of the imperial family, and was a great success. Return back to Salzburg he continued with his frenetic production; from this period are religious works of great billing, symphonies, divertimentos, lieder and other works, as the dream of Scipio, which was represented in 1772 to celebrate the arrival of a new Archbishop in the city of the River Salzach, count Hieronymus Colloredo. This situation would be a setback for his relationship with the Archbishop's Court, since the former and deceased mitrado, Archbishop Schrattenbach, always had been a support to the Mozart family, while the successor, Colloredo, would show is inflexible with the fulfilment of the obligations imposed on his subordinates, including the family of the composer. The young Wolfgang, in particular, was one of the hardest hit by this.

In 1772 they traveled again to Italy, in this case for the premiere of his second "serious" opera, Lucio Silla, which also won a resounding success. After that, Mozart spent a long time in his hometown, which greatly increased their production. However, the monotony of a life completely dedicated to musical creation began to greatly bored to the young musician, so it took several trips to distract from their straitened lives, as which they made to Vienna and Munich. Even when I had more time for leisure reserving space for the composition; proof of this are the six string quartets KV 168-173 or the second opera snorts false fielder, as well as symphonies and concertos for piano, Bassoon and strings composed at this time.

After the opera, instrumental music was more thoroughly worked Mozart in recent years. Highlights their work immediately after, as the five violin concertos and the four oboe concertos, as well as the divertimenti and SERENADES, composed by order of the Archbishop. However, relations with this were not very fluid, and the prohibition by the mitrado that Mozart made a trip to Paris was the final rupture of relations between both, and the resignation of the young musician to the protection of his benefactor, all time that requested the resignation of his position.

Thus, Mozart performed to the dessert that trip to Paris in 1777, in this case in the company of her mother. Before reaching the town of Sena made a long layover in Mannheim for over five months, during which the director of the famous Orchestra of the city, Christian Cannabich, welcomed them. Contact with this director and high orchestral culture that treasured was very important for Mozart, amen that during your stay in the city kept an intense affair with the singer Aloysia Weber (of only fifteen years of age), which made him increasingly delayed his trip to Paris. This situation was supported by his father with a strongly worded letter which provoked him to leave immediately. Thus, in March 1778 mother and son came finally to Paris.

Stays in Paris and Salzburg

The stay in Paris, probably due to the lack of interest aroused in Mozart from the beginning, was not very fruitful for her repertoire, even in spite of the efforts made by Melchior Grimm, former collaborator of his father, so that the young composer opened way the complicated Parisian musical world, where disputes between supporters of Gluck and Piccinni were more than heated. In addition, July 3, 1778 died his mother from a heart attack, which contributed even more to difficult to make your stay in Paris. However, Mozart delayed their return to Salzburg, where most hated when he learned that his father reserved you a square of organist at the Court as possible. However, it not was obliged to return, but it also dilated much this trip, because it wouldn't to his hometown until 1779, after having broken with Weber.

His work on the Court coincided with an intense creative activity, either because it will provide you with a professional security or because he simply hated this situation and used the composition to get away from it. The truth is that the Archbishop gave more salary, but also more obligations, and was, therefore, more time should devote to these. Wrote three symphonies, various concerts, two sonatas for violin and piano, and several works in this period religious, including the coronation mass (KV 317) and the mass KV 337, in addition to the review of the music of the play the King Thamos, the singspiel Zaide (although unfinished) and, above all, the opera Idomeneo, King of Crete (336 KV). This last work was, precisely, that most contributed to distracting Court obligations, because it was commissioned by the Court of Munich, which had to travel to this city to contour the work, rehearse it and release it, what happened on January 29, 1781. The premiere was a success, but a fleeting success. Mozart tried to find a job in the city, but had to resign and return to Salzburg after an order from the Archbishop himself.

Their complaints by wasting time in a courtroom too absorbent and miss opportunities to meet influential people, including the emperor himself, were not very taken into account by his father. However, events rushed after a dispute with the Archbishop, which finished presenting again the resignation. With this, its void intention of maintaining a relationship of practice bondage, own of the musicians of his time cutting, and its interest earning a living as independent musician, acclaimed in Europe, where the nobles treated as an equal, while in court it was continually underestimated by the Archbishop was unclear. This should teach lessons, get contracts for concerts by subscription and frantic activity as a composer, as well as hoping to get an opera commissioned.

All this became reality to settle definitely in Vienna, when they commissioned the composition of the abduction from the Seraglio, according to the libretto of the homonymous singspiel. Thus came the big jump from pure musician dramatic composer.

Vienna and the imperial court

After separated from Aloysia Weber, Mozart began a long courtship with the younger sister of Constance, courtship, which ended in a wedding on August 4, 1782, so it ended up in the family of his childhood sweetheart. Both were likely to enjoy the delights offered by a city as bustling Vienna at the time, and the ups and downs of everyday life caught them by surprise. Constance, moreover, despite playing the piano and singing, did not know at any time assess the huge composers qualities of her husband, and was limited to worry by the lifestyle that the artistic. However, Mozart was in love with her from the first day, and it was a tender and obsequious husband until his death. They had six children, of whom survived two Kart Thomas and Franz Xaver.

The first years of married in Vienna were focused on completing the opera which had been in charge you and some minor works (including the Sonata for two pianos 448 KV, KV 382 concert Rondo and the KV 385 Haffner Symphony), as well as to present in the Court of José II and the Viennese high society, and give lessons and concerts by custom. Relations with his father, who had always been so close despite the disparity of criteria, cooled drastically after his marriage to Constance. Even the trip in the summer of 1783 of husbands to Salzburg (where Constance interpreted as the first fragments of the mass in c minor, KV 427) contributed to restore normalcy to the relationship between father and son, a situation which lasted until the death of Leopold, occurred on May 28, 1787, when he was 67 years old.

Mozart. Mass in c minor, KV 427.

The abduction from the Seraglio was a huge success since its release July 16, 1782, and reached a large number of representations in the composer's life. It was the beginning of a happy marriage, as Mozart was hailed by Viennese society, had a lot of work, and his reputation as a musician reached the highest levels, especially in the triumphant year of 1782.

Between his arrival in Vienna and 1786 Mozart developed a great activity as a soloist, at the same time he composed a good number of these piano concertos for his own use, your students or other pianists (total fifteen, having a great importance in the corpus of his work, as well as other four horn concertos composed for his friend(, the instrumentalist Ignaz Leutgeb). Also from this period are the six string quartets dedicated to Joseph Haydn, several trios with piano, the two quartets with piano KV 478 and 493, various sonatas for violin and piano, as well as a host of smaller works.

At this time, on the other hand, it formed part of the circle of the influential baron Gottfried van Swieten, where were interpreted works of Handel and of both Bach, father and son, among other composers. Mozart took advantage of these social gatherings to unleash their musical creations less conventional, as fantasies, fugues and fragments of leaks. Also at this time (in particular in 1784), he was received by the Masonic lodge in Vienna, for which he wrote a number of compositions.

Despite its good relations with the Viennese high society, Mozart did not succeed in commissions to compose works for the theatre, then real showcase for the fame of a composer of that time. Even began the composition of plays at their own risk, as Lo sposo deluso, or goose of Cairo, but were not completed. The only custom that at that time came from the Court was the music for a small comic, Der Schauspieldirektor, which consisted of an Overture and four Sung numbers and work that was premiered on February 17, 1786 in Schönbrunn Castle. However, the occasion served to Mozart to contact with Lorenzo da Ponte te, dramatic poet who promised the composer provide a libretto for an opera, despite being solicitadisimo by the Court to compose works in Italian. Thus the libretto of the marriage of Figaro was born, adapted by Da Ponte a work of Beaumarchais , who had been a resounding success at the tables of Paris in 1784. Initially José II placed reservations, when considering the subversive work, but the ability of the own librettist did that at the end it was suitable for the actual eyes. Mozart completed the music in October 1785; the speed with which carried out the order, taking into account that it was not, nor much less your only occupation, gives an idea of the importance that was given to this work. Thus, the premiere was held on May 1, 1786 with enormous success, which made that his fame extended beyond the capital, especially in Prague, where Mozart came with his wife in 1787 to see some representation.

Representation of the marriage of Figaro by Mozart.

Precisely on that trip to Prague, where he gave a concert in which was presented his recent Symphony (the Prague Symphony, KV 504), was commissioned by his next opera, Don Giovanni, after signing a contract with the impresario Bondini. Mozart immediately got in touch with Da Ponte, and the work was ready for its premiere in the same city on 29 October of that same year, directed by the composer himself, with a resounding success. The composition of this opera took place at a particularly critical moment in the life of Mozart, every time that came you the news of the death of his father, with whom he had not maintained a relationship flowed from his link with Constance.

The crisis of the past years

After Don Giovanni, Mozart seemed determined to disassociate itself from the music composed to meet the public or the powerful who care it is and engage more vigorously to music created for your own satisfaction. As it would be expected, this decision, which is logical from the point of view of the creator, caused a progressive decrease of income and, therefore, a worsening of its financial situation. Not even his appointment as composer of imperial camera 7 December 1787 (which accompanied a compensation of 800 guilders) put remedy to this situation. In addition, the premiere of Don Giovanni in Vienna, on May 7 of the following year, did not reach applause desired, no doubt by the growing success of the composers dedicated to create works of fashion, accessible to all audiences, and they filled the theatres and the concerts of the imperial capital. To corroborate this it may mention that the three great symphonies KV 543, 550 and 551, created by Mozart in 1788, were not interpreted in life of the composer. From that time are also, as well as various dances commissioned by the Court, the piano concerto KV 537 (called "Concert for the Coronation", as it was composed for the coronation of the successor of José II, Leopold II), sonatas for piano, Chamber music, arias, lieder and guns parts.

Mozart. Symphony No. 41, "Jupiter" KV 551.

With the aim to stabilize its financial situation, it undertook a tour of Europe to find new orders and give some concerts. Thus, visited Prague, Dresden, Leipzig and Berlin, where he gave several concerts and received commissions from the King Federico Guillermo II. However, the trip was unsuccessful from the economic point of view, since did not contribute anything to alleviate their hardship. At that desperate moment the Court agreed he and entrusted the task of composing Cosi fan tutte ('thus do all'), again with Da Ponte, at the end of 1789. Its premiere, in January of the following year, was a success, although it failed to stay long time in poster. To the opera that same year was accompanied by other compositions, as numerous arias, three string quartets (KV 575, 589 and 590) to Federico Guillermo II, the Quintet with clarinet KV 581 and the last sonata for piano KV 576, among others.

On the occasion of the coronation of Leopoldo II, Mozart began a tour of concerts in the autumn of 1790, which led him to Frankfurt, Mainz, Mannheim and Munich. Although this journey served to load up on morals, their financial situation continued to be very delicate. Even so, rejected the offer that Organizer Peter Salomon concerts made him so submit new works in the city of the Thames from London.

In his last year of life he suffered a continuous deterioration of their economic situation and their health. In may he was appointed Assistant to the master of the chapel of St. Stephen's Cathedral, but it was a post without remuneration, and only gave a right to be appointed master on the death of the holder. Despite this, the commissions continued to accumulate. Thus, in March the librettist Emanuel Schikaneder commissioned an opera for its Freihaus-Theater auf der Wieden, and in July a sent of count Franz Walsegg zu Stuppach commissioned him a mass of requiem for his recently deceased wife, in addition to the States of Bohemia officially commissioned him to write a solemn opera for the coronation of the new emperor. So, with all this work, was so busy as in the best stages of his career, composing works of the likes of the last piano concerto KV 595, the two latest KV 593 and 614 string quintets, Concerto for clarinet KV 622 and Ave verum corpus, KV 618. Also began to work in the custom of Schikaneder, the magic flute, a work which ended almost in its entirety by the end of summer, as well as in the Requiem for the count and, above all, the opera for the coronation, the clemency of Titus, which was premiered in Prague on September 6.

For the first time in his career a "large" work was a failure. Clemency of Titus, written on a libretto by Pietro Metastasio, adapted by Caterino Mazzolá, didn't like the audience at the premiere, so Mozart returned to Vienna loading with the reverse. It then topped the magic flute, which was released on September 30 under their own direction. While success was not immediate, it was consolidating as they advanced representations, to become a true social phenomenon that beyond the borders of the Holy Roman Empire. However, his health was gradually getting worse, while it increased their despondency by money shortages and overwork. It seems so logical to think that which is devoted exclusively to Requiem in his final weeks of life was an announcement of its own demise, as if the work were really intended for his own death.

Mozart. Requiem KV 626.

He died on December 5, 1791, a rheumatic fever, after fifteen days of convalescence. Obsessed by finish the Requiem, he dictated his lines to Süssmayer, his assistant, from his deathbed; in fact, the death surprised him working on this. The corpse was lifted the next day, and was buried the day 7 in a mass grave in the cemetery of San Marcos, as was the custom of the time, since no one (possibly by negligence) was responsible for securing the best burial. The absence of any enrollment or headstone has made impossible the location of his remains.

The legend of his death and posthumous fame

It has much has written about the death of Mozart. The romantic ideal that was poisoned had even a protagonist: Antonio Salieri, musician of success of the period to which the legend draws as a mediocre artist who knew, as any in his time, understand the original genius of Mozart and, died of envy, could not tolerate the idea that a childlike man had such gift. The paroxysm became the end believing that Mozart was buried in a mass grave to erase the traces of the killing. So this legend spread that the protagonist of the opera Mozart and Salieri, Rimsky-Korsakov, as well as the play of the famous Russian writer was Alexandr Pushkin and drama Amadeus de Peter Shaffer (text that is based on successful eponymous film by Milos Forman, premiered in 1984 and starring Tom Hulce). In any case there is no reference historical who can corroborate this version, only evidence which, in any case, have been demonstrated.

The birthplace of Mozart, Getreidegasse No. 9, is one of the most visited places in Salzburg. Converted into a Museum, with lots of objects from the period and some of the instruments that Mozart played in his childhood, is a place of pilgrimage for all the music lovers who come to this Austrian city from all corners of the world.

House of Mozart. Salzburg (Austria).

On the occasion of the 250 th anniversary of his birth, Austria, his country of origin, turned in celebration of events, exhibitions, concerts and performances of his work, in what came to be called "Mozart year". For his inauguration, Nikolaus Harnoncourt conducted the Vienna Philharmonic in a Memorial concert held at the Mozarteum, where he rang the 40th Symphony. In April, for his part, the Viennese Albertina Museum opened a major exhibition entitled "Mozart. Experiment of the Enlightenment", composed of more than 1,100 items including sheet music, sketches of decorations, the piano where he composed Don Giovanni, charts, pictures, etc. On the other hand, opened a new House Museum (one of the thirteen that had the composer in Vienna) with a permanent exhibition about the era in which composed the marriage of Figaro.

Work

There are many aspects that must be taken into account when assessing the music of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. The first of these, in addition to the prolific number, is the variety of styles that make up its repertoire. It can be said that it is the only one of the great masters in the history of music that cultivated all genres of his time with the same interest.

Mozart. Rondo alla Turkish.

Another important aspect is the passion for composition that accompanied throughout his life. He was a composer so early that it trespassed the limits of what is understood by a child prodigy. However, what is really striking is that its production level not decreased throughout his life (the most common is that so gifted children lose all interest when you reach puberty), which makes virtually his life as composer match their real existence. Besides, by what is inferred from how much that has been written about the genius of Salzburg, the intensity of the work which accompanied him throughout his life not prevented him from having a personality cheerful and carefree, even in childhood, something completely away from others of the great names of world music. Indeed, contemporaries described him as a man of the world, passionate and taster of the pleasures of life, accomplished dancer and concerned about their social relationships, which clashes with the idea that could be considered a composer of his stature, author of such magnitude of quality works. Seems therefore logical thinking that you created to your around an idea of the mundane Mozart nothing had to do with the Mozart sitting at the piano, as if a superior being seize absent-minded and Joker man who knew their loved.

Something similar happened with his work. If not lent itself to the mundane Mozart special attention, their music not nor aroused enough interest, since contemporary musicians, more focused on satisfying the tastes of the moment (with less talent, of course) to develop a new musical message, were praised and treated openly, while Mozart was lost in oblivion, except in occasional moments of glory. It was not really until the magic flute when the public began to look at the (previously only had succeeded in high society), an almost posthumous work. Not too long later Mozart would become the idol of the young romantic, and recognition to his work would soon become cult which still today it is processed around the world.

To understand the musical universe of Mozart must have in mind, first, the city where he was born, Salzburg, crossroads of artistic influences (halfway between the large centres of the Italian, German and Vienna, the "European capital of music" in time of Gluck and Salieri), as the solid cultural and musical education from his father, Leopold, who mostly familiarized him with the composers in the South of Germany. To this we must add journeys Mozart made and who put him in contact with the great masters of the time, especially the near other great musical center of the moment, Paris. In addition, Mozart was a consummate master of the art of imitation, and knew how to get out of each teacher (to cite some, Eberlin, Adlgasser or Haydn between Germanic, Schobert, Eckardt and Honauer between the Parisian circle) it's best then use it for their own benefit. If we add his immense talent and his capacity for work (to own exhaustion) we can come to understand the immense legacy that left after his death.

First time: childhood and first trip to Italy (1773)

In his early works, simple short sentences made between 5 and 7 years, don't leave yet see the qualities of the Mozart that came later, but give an idea of the early flowering of his genius. His first compositions, mainly various movements for piano sonatas, reveal the influences of his first trip to Paris, especially the melodic structure of Johann Christian Bach.

With just nine years, Mozart already composed symphonies (a total of thirty-four), which explains his eagerness to appear before the eyes of the musical world of the time not only as a virtuoso performer, but as a true composer. In addition, if he was able to compose works of genres closest to him, such as serenades and divertimenti, also dared with forms that were beginning to be developed in that era, such as the string quartets, in which Italian line that also weighs on their first compositions can be observed.

Another important corpus of its first period of composition is religious music, which is part of the Salzburg tradition. Thus, wrote five masses, two "Regina Coeli", two litanies and a large number of works by minor, as well as six sonatas for the epistle. However, the thriving Italian composition of the moment made dent in the young creator, who printed his works a language close to the opera, with exalted melodic lines and an orchestra that acts as a mere passenger, all without damaging the harmonious dignity of his compositions. Much to be said for a composer of less than fifteen years.

To other works will be added the first trials of genres which will then become master, like the singspiel, opera buffa, or serious opera. In this field they must stand out Apollo et Hyacinthus, Batian and Bastuana and La finta semplice, mentioned above. Within the serious opera should highlight Mitridate, Ascanio in Alba, the dream of Scipio and Lucio Silla.

Second period: adolescence and youth

In this period of its production most of the works correspond to religious music and instruments. The opera, gender that Mozart showed much inclination, hardly developed at this time due to the lack of orders. However, it would be an opera, Idomeneo, King of Crete, considered most important in this stage. Characteristics of the musical universe of Mozart, such as harmonic and melodic introspection, the formal richness, the instrumental color and depth in the interpretation of the text, were already very present in this work, and were an advancement of the mature Mozart of his Viennese stage. However, the dramatic intensity is not the same as in his great later operas, and is spreading mainly among others.

In this period he composed innumerable arias for concert, which reached an intense expression by the passionate nature both the breadth of its conception. Religious music, on the other hand, continues to half way between the old style and modern style. This can be seen in the twelve masses of this period, where Mozart begins to shape a musical long texts of the "glory" or the "creed", particularly in the KV 317 and 337.

Mozart. Concerto for oboe in c, KV 314.

As for the symphonic works, Mozart strove in this period defining the character of the different movements and balance them in the body of the work, as it can be seen in the KV 183 and 201, which are carefully finished. Precisely, the influence of the Parisian music, which is very present in his symphonic works of this period, can be seen in the "Paris" Symphony KV 297, which is more pompous.

Where, however, the talent of Mozart reached its true dimension as artist at this time was in his divertimenti and SERENADES. This music, away from the pageantry and the seriousness of religious and symphonic works and operas, more indifferent and cheerful, was very pleased to Salzburg society. Movements of symphonic character, concertantes movements, popular dances and other works show their inventiveness and their compositional freedom. Something similar happened in the field of the concert, from his first piano concerto KV 175, where the musical richness of his art, shown already to the sonatas for piano, which are part of the same line of the earlier works, but with more breadth in terms of its technical demands. On the other hand, the string quartets are inspired by the Haydn, and move away from the first Italianate quartets from the previous reporting period.

Third epoch: maturity

This third and last period's first feature the symptomatic descent of the composition of religious works. Symphonies and SERENADES were also reduced. However, little of this type of work production is not incompatible with a refinement and exquisite care by the composer. Symphonies and SERENADES will give way to piano concertos, where you register the music more "worldly" Mozart production from this period. On the other hand, the value given to the operas and music of camera in this period is much higher, almost exclusive, although Mozart also had interest in composing works of circumstances, arias, ensembles and choirs, lieder and cannons.

Mozart left parts of his friend Joseph Haydn and the study of the works of Bach and Handel. However, if this period is characterized by something it is for the appropriation of the sources, which are modified and molded to fit completely the wishes of the composer, creating a completely original and unique musical language. The study of Haydn depart pieces such as the six string quartets KV 387, 421, 428, 458, 464 and 465. As for the influence of Bach and Handel, focuses on numerous leaks and fantasies, as well as the footprint of the Messiah, Acis and Galatea or Ode to St. Cecilia are present in his two great religious works of this period, the mass in c minor KV 427 and Requiem, unfinished both.

The practical absence of serenades and divertimenti gives an idea of the lack of interest of Mozart by the music of simple entertainment and desire to focus on a Spiritualized Chamber music, as it can be seen in the SERENADES KV 361, 375 and 388, and especially in the little night music KV 525.

Mozart. Little night music.

For its part, the last six symphonies shows the interest of Mozart by the symphonic works of Haydn and its evolution on-the-job contrapuntal and theme, as well as expand the Symphony sound. However, the last symphonies show deep introspection that endowed them Mozart, conducting this type of composition to a deeper expression that it had until then. Good proof of this are the Haffner Symphony KV 385, the Symphony "Linz" KV 425 and the KV 551 "Jupiter" Symphony.

Mozart. Symphony No. 36, "Linz" KV 425, Adagio.

Mozart. Symphony No. 40 (fragment).

In the case of concerts, Mozart dedicated more time to his realization that in former times. At this stage, he composed seventeen concertos for piano, some in the above line, but in others it closer to your work for (KV 449, 453 and 456) Chamber music, while in others the brilliance and freshness are the dominant notes (KV 450, 451 and 459). Loudness is especially careful at concerts KV 482, 488 and 491, reaching levels that Mozart had not arrived until then, sublimated already in the KV 537, which contrasts with "Coronation" Concerto KV 537 and the concert in if b flat KV 595, where the seriousness of the occasion, which can be seen in certain absence of contrast is more present. In addition to these piano concertos, Mozart wrote four for Horn and a clarinet concerto.

Chamber music for piano, from which Mozart counts as the first to make it a separate genus, left at this time five trios for violin, piano and cello; the "Kegelstatt" trio for clarinet, viola and piano KV 498; two Quartets for violin, viola, cello and piano; and the Quintet for four wind instruments and piano KV 452. The main feature of these pieces is the sober and careful style themed simple but full of great intensity. In them, despite being the piano that dominates, the ropes acquire greater importance. Something similar happens in the divertimento KV 563, the Quintet with clarinet KV 581 and the last four quintets of rope KV 515, 516, 593 and 614; all of them combine the Majesty, the delicacy and the extreme simplicity of the latest compositions of the Salzburg, also present in the numerous concert arias and lieder in this period.

The Mozart opera in Vienna

The operas of this period are, without a doubt, one of the best-known aspects of the works of Mozart. They were, moreover, the culmination of the German singspiel, intermixed operas and the serious operas that had already cultivated in his youth.

Of the first of these genres is the work which started this period and which gave the genre its independence, the abduction from the Seraglio, where the stylistic diversity exceeds historical corset of the genus. It is, moreover, the first work in which Mozart intervened decisively in the development of the script, therefore taking a role not only as a musician, but also as a dramatic author. Noteworthy contributions in the delicate melodies in the singing of love and joyful servants talks. This reached its fullness in Figaro nights. While is supposed that it was in the beginning of an opera buffa, the development of the characters of the characters away it from this genre, as they reach a human component unthinkable in earlier works.

Don Giovanni introduces, for its part, other levels of drama, adding to the human characters others of a supernatural nature. Musical expression includes then greater nuances, because the antics of Leporello is passed the haughtiness and contempt for the laws of don Juan, as well as their terror in the final moments, which contrasts with the chilling appearance of the spectrum of the Commander, in one of the scenes of greatest dramatic intensity of opera performed hitherto.

Così fan tutte, however, carries the plot, with the same bases, pure game. Harmony in the songs and numerous sets of characters who, really, are only puppets with a light characterization, achieve a resonance as in no other work by Mozart. You can say that it is the part in which more away from reality to be delivered to the pure art for art. This contrasts with clemency of Titus, anachronistic and much-maligned work in which, however, they may be elements of Mozart in the maturity of his art. Perhaps the reason for the order, the coronation of Leopoldo II, weighed on the composer in creating it, and put in scene a "heavy" and far more pompous than the earlier opera.

The singspiel the magic flute closes a life cycle. In it, Mozart focuses on a Masonic idea of humanity which converge all the characters, so it can be said that it is a more focused on ideas than on the characterization of these. The extreme tonal simplicity of many passages of the work give is of a spirituality unparalleled up to that time.

Essential discography

Mass in c major KV 317 (Coronation mass); performers: Buckel, McKinnon, Winkler, Wollitz, Figuralchor der Gedächtniskirche Stuttgart, Bach-Collegium Stuttgart; Director: Hetmult Rilling. Mass in c minor KV 427 (Gran mass); performers: Cotrubas, Kanawa, Drenn, Sotin, John Alldis choir of London and New Philharmonic Orchestra; Director: Raymond Leppard. EMI 567-747 384-2.Cuarteto string K 465 "disonancia". K 614 string quintet; performers: Quartet (The Lindsays) Lindsay and Louise Williams (viola) ASV CD DCA 1069.Sonatas for fortepiano and violin D. 301-305; cast: Fabrizio Cipriani (violin) and Sergio Ciomei (fortepiano); Cantus, C 9602. Prolungati and canzonette for three voices with three corni di bassetto (or modern clarinets) Mi lagnero tacendo, is lontan ben mio your sei più non si trovano, etc.; performers: Schäfer, Hintz, Fischer-Dieskau and the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra wind section members. 218 911 C ORF.

Bibliography

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CAPDEPON, Pauline. "The first reception of the music of Mozart in Spain (1787-1830)," communication of knowledge. Scientific Yearbook of University Elizabeth I I (2012), pp. 21-39.

DEUTSCH, Otto. Mozart: A documentary Biography. Stanford, Stanford University Press, 1966.

GUTMAN, Robert. Mozart: a cultural biography. San Diego, Harcourt Inc., 1999.

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SADIE, Stanley. Mozart: the early years, 1756-1781. New York, W. W. Norton, 2006.

STEPTOE, Andrew. The Mozart-da Ponte Operas. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1990.

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Links on the Internet

http://www.mozartproject.org;Page about the life, work and times of Mozart. http://www.mhrcc.org/mozart; Page about Mozart.