Biography of King of la taifa de Badajoz Muhammad al-Muzaffar (ca. 1005-1068)

King of the taifa of Badajoz born about 1005 and died October 30, 1068. Man very cultured and refined, his reign was marked by constant wars against their co-religionists and the diminishing the territory of Badajoz for the benefit of the Kingdom of Castile and Leon.

Belonging to the family of the aftasidas, of the Miknasa Berber tribe, was son of Abdallah ibn Maslam Al - Mansur, who had established the dynasty in the Kingdom of Badajoz aftasida in 1022. During the reign of his father he/she actively participated in the military actions between the kingdoms of Badajoz and Sevilla, acaudillando at 1030 the army that Abdallah al - Mansur ordered for the defense of Beja, city that took that same year. However, he/she was defeated in the subsequent assault on the city by Seville Abul Qasim and Muhammad I of Carmona and was captured and detained in Carmona. After his release in 1030 he/she returned to Badajoz to disregard the advice of Muhammad I of which popped into Seville to pay homage to Abul Qasim.

Muhammad inherited the Kingdom of Badajoz, which included the Portuguese regions of Evora and Lisbon and the lands between the Douro and the Mondego, the death of his father in 1045, and immediately took the honorific titles of al - Muzaffar ('the victorious') and Saif al - Dawla ('sword of the State'). He/She began his reign on war against Abu Amr Abbad of Seville, which had just annex to the taifa of Mértola realm and had turned their efforts to conquer the Kingdom of fog. Towards 1050 al - Muzaffar Ibn Yahya, the Lord of mist, received a request for aid against the Kingdom abbadi and the badajocense sovereign grouped his troops and marched to the defense of fog, commanders in this way the conflict with the Kingdom of Seville; Abu Amr Abbad attacked the aftasidas lands at a time the Badajoz army was in defense of fog. Later came a direct confrontation between the Allied armies and abbadi in the own walls of fog; Although initially the battle was marked by the Sevillian superiority, al - Muzaffar was able to regroup his troops and defeating the Emirs with them. After the victory, the Allied troops penetrated into the Kingdom of Seville and ravaged and destroyed as found in its path.

But Ibn Yahya, which needed urgently to sign peace with Seville, allied himself with his old enemy; This fact sparked the anger of al - Muzaffar, who invaded fog by the West and seized the money entrusted to him by Ibn Yahya. But Abu Amr Abbad sent their cavalry squadrons to the defense of the plaza, and although at first they were rejected by the troops of Badajoz, at the beginning of 1051 they defeated the aftasidas causing huge casualties among their ranks. They immediately embarked on a terrible RAID on the land of Badajoz and al - Muzaffar requested the help of Carmona, staunch enemy of the Emirs Ishaq I , to prevent the conquest of Evora. The Carmona sent an army of Knights under the command of his son al - Mu'izz and together they departed to the defense of the city. The Allied army composed of 3000 horsemen was shattered by Seville squads on the outskirts of Evora. After this, al - Muzaffar, no army, was enclosed within the walls of Badajoz while the troops of Abu Amr Abbot went rampage around the city and destroying various strengths. Although the King of Badajoz requested relief other taifas Kings, no one helped her. Peace was signed in summer of 1051, through Muhammad al-Rasid of Cordoba, Firecrest, which throughout the war had urged both sides to leave the fight.

A few years later, Fernando I of Castile and Leon took advantage of the weakness of the United aftasida after their defeat against Sevilla and attacked Lamego (1057) and Viseo (1058), occupying the strengths of the Duero line. Al - Muzaffar not could resist Christian attacks because of the enormous distance of those lands to supply bases and Mozarabic resistance in numerous enclaves between the Douro and the Mondego. Fernando I then sent his troops against Santarém and this made react to al - Muzaffar, Santarém was the key of their territories; He/She returned to gather an army and marched towards the Tagus. When he/she came to town this was about to surrender. In the same river Tagus, al - Muzaffar in a boat and horseback Christian captain, al - Muzaffar got an armistice in return for an annual pariah of 5000 dinars. So Fernando I got the tribute of the Al-Andalus Kings by the lands of the Tagus.

But at the beginning of 1064 the Castilian monarch began the conquest of Coimbra. The siege lasted six months and al - Muzaffar lost square by the treachery of the caïd of the city, Randuh, vassal of the King of Badajoz; Al - Muzaffar did immediately beheaded. The entry of Fernando I in Coimbra took place June 11, 1064; more than 5000 Muslims of the city were reduced to captivity. Before his death in 1065, the Castilian monarch still snatched Montemor Castle to the realm of Badajoz.

From 1065 al - Muzaffar paid high outcasts García of Galicia, the son of Fernando I to whom this had bequeathed the Portuguese lands and therefore the taxes of the Kingdom of Badajoz. It is known that at the end of his days the monarch aftasida had to endure the attacks of Alfonso VI, which only withdrew their armies from the border of Badajoz thanks to a mediation of Yahya ibn Ismailof Toledo.

Al - Muzaffar died one year before his enemy Abu Amr Abbad, having lost the Northern head of his Kingdom, which was reduced to the line of the Mondego. Left two sons: Yahya and Omar, inheriting the Kingdom first.

Muhammad al - Muzaffar was a very cultured and refined, with a strong poetic sensibility that made him prefer the ancient poetry of Mutanabbi and al - Mari. Along with his Secretary Said ibn Jayra wrote an encyclopedia in 50 volumes (some authors claim that they were 100) which was called Kitab al - Muzaffari and which were all sciences literature, especially grammar, language, poetry, history sources and a large repertoire of weird news; It is also credited with a history of the Banu-l-canker sores, which today has been lost and is only known for brief references.

Bibliography

DOZY, R. Histoire des Muslim d'Espagne juste la conquête de l' Cordoba pas les Almoravides. Paris, 1932.

JOVER ZAMORA, J.M. (dir). "The Taifa kingdoms. Al - Andalus in the 11th century,"in history of Spain Menéndez Pidal, vol. VIII-I. Madrid, Espasa Calpe, 1994.

LUMP ALBARRAN, M. political history of Extremadura in the Islamic period (713-1248). Badajoz, 1986.