Biography of Muhammad II (980-1010)

Fourth Caliph of al - Andalus (1009, 1010), great-grandson of the first Umayyad Caliph of al - Andalus, Abd al-Rahman III (912-961), born in the year 980 in Cordoba and died July 23, 1010, murdered by the Slavic Wadih. His short reign was marked by terrible clashes between Arabs, Berbers and Slavs. It was he/she who, under the command of a large army, in 1009 put an end to the dictatorship imposed by Abd al - Rahman Sanchuelo, last representative of the amiri dynasty to.

When in 1006 he/she lost his father, Hisham ben Abd al - Chabbar, murdered by the forces of Abd al - Malik Al - Muzaffar, maximum leader of a revolt whose purpose was to put an end to the dictatorship of the amiries and depose Hisham IIpuppet, Muhammad became the unofficial pretender to the caliphal throne proposed the disgruntled Umayyad. Two years later, in 1008, Abd al - Malik died poisoned, apparently by order of his ambitious half-brother Abd al - Rahman Sanchuelo, who replaced him in the absolute power of al - Andalus.

Debauchery, lawlessness and the slackness in the Affairs of State in which fell the Caliphate under the authority of Sanchuelo was of such caliber that alarmed and irritated greatly to Córdoba. Knowing that Sanchuelo harbored intentions of being appointed successor to the throne by the own Hisham II, Umayyad different suitors closed ranks each other and ready to claim their rights to the throne, supported by the resentful mother of Abd al - Malik, al - Dhalfa, directly accusing the death of his son Sanchuelo. Despite its limited capacity to govern, and that did not have sufficient ability to manage the political and social situation in al - Andalus (its unique quality was to be an Umayyad), Muhammad ibn Hisham Ibd Abd al - Chabbar was elected to the caliphal throne.

The circumstances were favorable to the interests of the rebels and malcontents, since when Muhammad was about to undertake a March against Córdoba to overthrow the-amiri, this was making war against the Christian kingdoms of the North. Thus, the 15 February 1009, Muhammad became owner of Cordoba and the Palace without any problems. Forced the puppet Caliph who renounced the throne in his favor, what this not opposed any resistance and then bi-llah is hanging with the laqab of al - Mahdi (' good Ala-guided '); It then allowed his troops, composed of the most humble and vulgar people who could find, submit to the capital to a terrible looting that left her virtually decimated. Aware of the events, Sanchuelo returned abruptly to Cordoba with intentions to regain power but, before reaching Cordoba, was surprised by the troops of the new Caliph, who were waiting for him. Shot during the battle, Sanchuelo head was cut and exposed and paraded in a pica by across the capital. Only thereafter, Muhammad II began to be regarded as the new Caliph of al - Andalus, and as such, to receive the respective accessions and oaths of loyalty from the Governors of brands and provinces of the Caliphate, including the powerful slave Wadih, Commander of the Middle mark.

But, despite the great opportunity that was to become loving and consolidate its authority on the throne, the Caliph proved to be so imprudent or more than the own Sanchuelo. It surrounded a court incapable viziers and without any preparation, chosen among the populace more ruin and his buddies of parties and debauchery, and began living with a messy luxury; all of this, I kept hidden from the dethroned Caliph Hisham II, strongly guarded and private all the pleasures that had habit, without value to assassinate him, face possible retaliation that could arise from the regicide. Muhammad II announced the death of Hisham II showing the corpse of a Jew who resembled the Umayyad, he/she was buried with full honors. The ruse immediately raised suspicions of some Umayyad family, so Muhammad was forced to imprison some of his own relatives to nip any Backbiting or suspicions.

One of those jailed relatives, Sulayman, also great-grandson of the great Abd al-Rahman III, took advantage of the revolt of the Berbers against Muhammad II so they appoint him pretender to the caliphal throne. To this end, the Berbers did not hesitate to sign a Treaty of Alliance with the Castilian count Sancho García, which contradicted dangerously imposed tradition from a century earlier. Both armies defeated the troops of Muhammad II at the battle of Alcolea November 1, 1009. Muhammad II could not avoid the triumphal entry of Sulayman in Cordoba, but tried a last resort by bringing to light the captive Hisham II, to which the vast majority was already dead. Given that his ploy had not succeeded, Muhammad II abruptly fled to Toledo, where he/she still maintained strong alliances and allegiances. Without any apparent hindrance, Sulayman Caliph with the title or laqab of al - Mustain hanging bi-llah (' the one who seeks the aid of Allah').

In his temporary exile toledano, Muhammad II succeeded in setting up an army of about 40,000 men, mostly Slavs adepts to general Wadih; In addition, counted with the collaboration of important Catalan contingent commanded by the count Ramon Borrell III of Barcelona and Armengol de Urgel. With an impressive troop, Muhammad II had few problems defeating Sulayman in a bloody battle may 10, 1010, contest that allowed him to take over, for the second time, the caliphal throne. But the following month, Muhammad II was forced to respond to attacks by the ousted Sulayman in the serrania de Ronda, campaign which ended with the absolute failure of the Caliph, where he/she lost most of his best men.

Back to Córdoba to reorganize his battered troops, the Catalans refused to again give their military support to Muhammad II, who had no choice but to resign themselves to their fate and wait in Cordoba to the troops of Sulayman aprestasen the final blow. While waiting, Muhammad II said his dissolute character, because it was incapaza to organize the city conveniently tackling the rebel attacks, so general Wadih, tired of a man so lacking in intelligence as plenty of vices, decided to assassinate him and replace in the throne the puppet Hisham II. July 23, 1010, Muhammad II was executed by one of the officers of Wadih in the presence of the not less inept Hisham II.

Bibliography

ARIE, R. The Muslim Spain. (Barcelona: Ed. Labor. 1984).

CHEJNE, Anwar G. history of Spain Muslim. (Madrid: Ed. Cátedra. 1980).

GLICK, Thomas F. Christians and Muslims in medieval Spain (711-1250). (Madrid: Ed. Alianza Editorial. 1991).

GUICHARD, Pierre. The Muslim Spain: Umayyad al - Andalus (siglos VIII - XI). (Madrid: Ed. Group 16. 1995).

LÉVI-PROVENÇAL, E. Muslim Spain until the fall of the Caliphate of Cordoba (711-1031). Volume no. 4 of the history of Spain of Menéndez Pidal. (Madrid: Espasa-Calpe ed. 1992).

VALLVÉ, J. The Umayyads. (Madrid: Ed. Group 16. 1985).

Carlos Herraiz García.