Biography of Muhammad III (976-1025)

Tenth first Caliph from Córdoba in al - Andalus (1024-1025), great-grandson of the founder of the Caliphate Abd al-Rahman III (912-961), born in the year 976 in Cordoba and died in June or July 1025 deo near Uclés (Cuenca), murdered by one of the courtiers who accompanied him in his flight from Córdoba. His short reign was marked by the progressive social and political disintegration of the Caliphate.

Life

Son of Abd al - Rahman ben Abd Allah, murdered by order of the general amiri Al - Mansur (Almanzor), and a slave named Hawra, was exalted to the Caliphate on 17 January the year 1024, at the age of thirty-eight years, as a result of a revolt from Córdoba in protest by the acceptance of the Caliph Abd al-Rahman V (1023-1024) of troops Berbers to join the ranks of the caliphal army. Peat citizen who invaded the Palace found it hidden in one of the dependencies of the building fearing for his life. Without asking their opinion, that same day was appointed Caliph unanimously, adopting the title or laqab of al - Mustakfi bi-llah (' the one who is satisfied with Allah'). The first step of the new sovereign Government was to be bring to his predecessor and ordered his immediate execution.

Even though his proclamation as Caliph responded to the attempt by the Cordoba aristocracy of ending the prevailing anarchy in the last years of the reign of the dynasty of the hammudids, Muhammad III was not, nor much less, to rise to the occasion. Weak, indolent nature and libertine, from the first moment it unleashed unbridled vengeance against all his political enemies, who eliminated outright, as to his cousin Ibn al - Iraqi, which sent choking after having named his heir. Others imprisoned, case of great writer and poet Ib'n Hazam (author of the magnificent work of the necklace of the dove). Such an act of folly and depravity provoked the wrath of the notables of the city, in principle favourable to the dynasty of the Umayyads, but which were gradually separating from the Caliph until it fell into the arms of the deposed Caliph hammudid Yahya ben Ali ben Hammud, who was a refugee in Malaga.

Muhammad III more worsened the situation to surround himself at the Court of rude people, without preparation or scruples to straighten a Kingdom which naufragaba everywhere. Year and half long who was on the throne, amid great disorders, was abandoned to dissipation, beverage, food and all kinds of sexual pleasures, unable to be respected by the people, who with impunity taunted him by calling him "miedecillo" or "tummy", because of his known cowardice and his impressive obesity.

The hammudid Yahya determined, finally be in charge for the second time of the caliphal throne, which began to organize, without any hurry, a large army to besiege Córdoba. Threatened by the hammudid, given that the social unrest was getting stronger, the pusillanimous Caliph decided to flee before being overthrown, since the latter would amount to a certain death.

Taking advantage of tumults which suffered from the city by the siege which had subjected Yahya, Muhammad III managed to escape on 26 May of the year 1025, covered with a veil and disguised as singer, swift moving towards the upper mark. A few weeks later he/she was murdered by a member of his personal guard near Uclés Cuenca population. Again the caliphal throne was empty so Yahya to reach it for the second time, six months after the demise of Muhammad III, delay giving tests more than enough of that Cordoba had already ceased to be desirable prey for any candidate.

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Carlos Herraiz García.