Biography of King of la taifa de Zaragoza Mundir I Ibn Yahya (ca. 975-ca. 1024)

King of the taifa of Zaragoza, belonging to the dynasty Tujibi, born about 975 and died to 1024. With the independence of the top mark with respect to the Caliphate of Córdoba was reached and organized the first Arab dynasty in Zaragoza during the first years of the fitna. His short reign was very prosperous and Zaragoza spent to occupy a position of first magnitude in Peninsular Affairs

Al-Mundhir began his career as a simple soldier in the army of Almanzor and in the last years of his life was promoted to general. At the beginning of the civil wars that caused the breakdown of the Caliphate (fitna) was appointed Governor of the upper mark (1009) by the Caliph Hisham II, to who betrayed, show supporter of Sulayman al - Musta'in, his rival. In the confrontation between the two pretenders to the throne of the Caliph al-Mundhir fought together with al - Musta'in to seize Cordoba (8 November 1009). It is also likely that Al-Mundhir participate in the expedition to the Catalan counts organized in 1010 to take Cordoba and there knew the count Ramón Borrell. However Al-Mundhir, at this time in which Cordoba was shaken by constant coups, was not supporter of any Caliph in particular, but gave its accession the most powerful candidates, and when he/she saw that his position was in danger, he/she left Cordoba and marched to his residence in Zaragoza, where ruled independently as a true sovereign, without intervening in the Affairs of Córdobathat ended with the fall of the Caliphate in 1031. Thus, Al-Mundhir went from Hisham II Party of Muhammad IIal - Mahdi and then embraced the cause of Sulayman. After this murder in 1016, Al-Mundhir accepted the sovereignty of Alí Ibn Hammud, but set conditions that were accepted by the Caliph to strengthen his position by Alliance with the Lord of Zaragoza.

In 1018 Mundhir joined Jayran, Lord of Almeria, to restore to the caliphal throne to a Marwani in the person of Abd al-Rahman Al - Murtada IV, whom both proclaimed Caliph in Jativa April 29, 1018; they had previously formed an army with people of the upper mark and lift and got the Alliance of the conde Ramón Borrell de Barcelona. Alí Ibn Hammud was killed March 22, 1018 and was quickly replaced by his brother al-Qasim. The rebel army garrisoned in Jativa marched to submit to the Sinhayies of Granada rather than taking the caliphal capital by decision of Mundhir and Jayran. But the Lord of Granada, Zawi Ibn Ziri, defeated the royalists against the walls of the city and al - Murtada was killed on the flight, with what restoration plans were truncated. Al-Mundhir and Jayran fled to Almeria, while Sulayman Ibn Hud, a commander of the army of Al-Mundhir, returned to the upper mark with Zaragoza troops and accompanied by the catalan army Ramón Borrell. After Al-Mundhir returned to Zaragoza.

From that then Mundir declared independence and ceased to participate in the Affairs of the Caliphate, whose decomposition did not witness. It took the honorific titles of al - Haajib, al - Mansur, and Du-l-Riyasatayn. According to the Chronicle of Ibn Hayyan, he/she managed to gather under his authority to mark different Governors and sought to unify their States through the creation of a bureaucracy that was resting in the figure of the Secretaries; the most important of these Secretaries were Abu Al - Abbas Ibn Marus and Abu Amir Ibn Arzaq. To complete the domain on the top mark, Al-Mundhir invaded Huesca and drove her to his relative, Governor Ibn Sumadih.

His reign was short, but he/she showed his extraordinary powers as a good politician and statesman. Since it declared independence should try to avoid the desires of Castilian and Catalan on the Kingdom of Zaragoza, which, according to the chronicler Ibn Hayyan, achieved thanks to its political maturity. A sample of the King of Zaragoza's good relations with powerful neighbors is the fact that the wedding between Berenguer Ramón I, son of count Ramón Borrell de Barcelona, with the daughter of Sancho de Castilla, held in Zaragoza in the presence of a large number of people of the two faiths.

The exact date of his death is unknown, but this must happen before 1024, in which currencies already show as ruler Yahya, son of Mundhir and his successor.

The Chronicles show to Al-Mundhir as a great rider, a man strong and arrogant, intelligent and very generous, but Machiavellian. Ibn Hayyan praised his acumen and presents him as a ruler just whose death was very mourned among his subjects.

Bibliography

JOVER ZAMORA, j. m. (dir.). "The Taifa kingdoms. Al - Andalus in the 11th century,"in history of Spain Menéndez Pidal, vol. VIII-I. Madrid, Espasa Calpe, 1994.

LÓPEZ DE COCA CASTAÑER, J. E. "The Taifa kingdoms", in history of Andalusia, vol. II. Madrid-Barcelona, 1980.

TÜRK, TO. The Kingdom of Zaragoza in the 11th century of Christ (V of the Hegira). Madrid, 1978