Biography of Joachim. King of Nápoles Murat (1767-1815)

French General, Grand Duke of Berg and King of Naples, born in La Bastide-Fortuniere on March 25, 1767, and died in Pizzo, on 13 October 1815. He was one of twelve children of a gascon innkeeper. He was educated in the school of Cahors and later studied theology, since his parents destined him to the ecclesiastical state; but, against the wish of his family, went to serve in the regiment of Ardennes hunters in February 1787.

A riot in Sélestat, earned him be removed from the army in 1789, and it had to be in a grocery store, but the French Revolution changed his life. The canton of Montfaucon appointed him their representative to the feast of the Federation of 14 July 1790. He joined in January 1791 the constitutional guard of King, and joined his old body, which became captain in April 1793 in March 1792. In August 1793 he entered the twenty-first Regiment of hunters, and it was then when a conflict with his boss made him appear before the Revolutionary Court of Amiens. There he asserted his great patriotism; in fact, the death of Marat thought even changing his last name: Murat Marat.

After 9 Thermidor, he lost his job by Jacobin, but 13 Vendémiaire (equivalent to October 1795) led in time thirty cannons Bonaparte with realists, who could this beat made that allowed him to regain his standing. He was promoted to Commander of Brigade February 2, 1796, and then first aide-de-camp of Napoleon, beside who fought in the campaign of Italy in 1796. He distinguished himself both in this and in Egypt, in which he won the job of general of division in the battle of Abukir (1799). Napoleon supported the 18 Brumaire, and he was named head of the Consular guard in 1800, year in which he also married Carolina Bonaparte, sister of Napoleon.

From 1800 to 1804 he served the Emperor in Italy; in 1804 he was appointed Governor of Paris and Marshal of the Empire and, in 1805, Admiral, Prince and member of the Legion of Honor. That same year he fought at the battle of Austerlitz. In relation to Ouvrard, in June 1805 he offered to left so Godoy grant an export of piastres, and it agreed, believing that Murat would have a defender near the emperor. On 14 July 1805 Godoy said even his desire to direct correspondence with Murat. This made a nice business, but did not become the intermediary seeking Godoy.

In 1806 the emperor made him Grand Duke of Berg. He participated in the actions of Jena, Lübeck at the site of Königsberg (1806), and at the battle of Eylau (1807); In addition, Murat was the only Marshal next to Napoleon at Tilsit Conference. However, despite such privileges and the relevance and power that they were getting, marriage Murat, endowed with boundless ambition (especially Caroline), devised in November 1807 the marriage of a niece of Murat with Fernando VII, although such wedding was never held. In 1808, Murat served in Spain; chaired the Board of Governors and was responsible for the shootings of May 3, 1808, immortalized by Goya in his famous canvas. His agenda and his proclamation (Madrid, 2 may 1808) were published in many newspapers, for example in the Seville E-mail of May 14, 1808 and summary of the latest gazetas of Europe, in 1808 (in this only the proclamation).

In the summer of 1808, he suffered rheumatic colic (called by the French "colic of Madrid") that forced him to retire to France, after leaving command to the general Savary. That same year he was named King of Naples instead of José Bonaparte. It had to serve in Russia with the Grand' Armée; It distinguished itself in the actions of Smolensk and Borodino, and was the first to enter Moscow. On December 5, 1812 he was responsible for the withdrawal, when Napoleon moved to Paris, and on January 17, 1813, moved to Naples. Promptly joined the allies in 1814 and saved his Kingdom with England and Austria sign a treaty by which is required to give a contingent of 30,000 men to the coalition in Exchange for preserving the throne of Naples. When Napoleon returned from Elba Island, was declared again in their favor; and while he tried to enter in dealings with Europe, he attacked the Austrians (and was then defeated), already making it impossible any negotiation with foreign sovereigns, that Napoleon returned their specifications without opening them. As the emperor would not admit him to his presence, he retired to Italy, and after the defeat of Waterloo passed to Corsica. Tried the reconquest of Naples, but was captured and, after a summary trial, he was shot on the night of 13-14 October 1815.

Tulard, in 1983, claimed his memory as a patriot who conceived the Italian unity. Your Correspondance, 1791-1808 was published in Turin in 1899 and the Lettres et documents pour servir à l'histoire de Joachim Murat appeared in Paris, between 1908 and 1914, and were published in eight volumes.