Biography of Musa o Muza ibn Nusayr (640-718)

Military leader and Arab Governor of North Africa, responsible for the Muslim conquest of Morocco and the Iberian peninsula. He was born in Mecca (Saudi), approximately towards the year 640, and died in suspicious circumstances, in the same city, in the year 718. Once occupied the entire Maghreb to the coast of the Atlantic, he ordered Tariq Ibn Ziyad a first attack on the Iberian peninsula in the year 711, to then personally direct operations of conquest in the same. After several clashes with his Lieutenant Tariq, he was called to Damascus on the orders of the Umayyad Caliph al - Walid, who dismissed him from all his positions. His position was occupied by his son Abd al - Aziz Ibn Musa.

Ibn Nusayr was a freed yemeni of the Governor of Egipto Abd al - Azir, the brother of the Umayyad Caliph of Damascus Abd al - Malik. Under the Caliphate of Ibn Nusayr served as collector of contributions in Basra, but was accused of misappropriation of funds. Fled to Egypt under the aegis of Abd al - Azir, the brother of Caliph got this forgiveness for your liberto after a very strong fine. Ibn Nusayr regained all its prestige and was appointed Governor of Ifriqiyya (present Tunisia) and its contours, province dependent on the waliato of Egypt then. Once dead Abd al - Malik, the Caliph al - Walid entrusted the task of conquering the western territories of the Maghreb (Morocco today), what Ibn Nusayr carried out quite effectively. Ibn Nusayr troops occupied Sijilmassa, in the very heart of the Maghreb, South of the High Atlas, where left to one of his sons with the mission to submit to the Berber of the masmuda tribe, while he occupied the banks of the Muluyya River and was owner of Tangier. However, the city of Ceuta continued in the hands of the Visigothic count don Julián, character on whose role and meaning there is no unanimity among historians. Ibn Nusayr returned to Qairaouan, capital of Ifriqiyya, loaded with hostage-taking of all the tribes which had submitted, once you let head of every Moroccan city of importance to a his client for the purpose of propping up its conquests.

In Qairaouan, Ibn Nusayr met with don Julian, who persuaded him to support the claims of the witizanos to the Visigothic throne and offered everything needed to jump to the peninsula. In that context, in October of the year 709, a first RAID was conducted from Ceuta to Algeciras. Due prudence by the Caliph al - Walid, requiring a minimum score and prior recognition before undertaking business of conquest of the magnitude that was making at the time, Ibn Nusayr instructed the competent general Tarif Ibn Maluk perform a small military incursion and recognition in July of the year 710, reports more than anything to give exact of the tumultuous civil war in the Visigothic Kingdom was submergedsplit between the supporters of the new King don Rodrigo and the witizanos (descendants of the previous King Witiza). Ibn Nusayr received good news, decided to take the final step and instructed his client Tariq Ibn-Ziyad, the then Governor of Tangier, landing on the peninsula, in the month of April or may of the year 711, under the command of a powerful army of 7,000 men, composed mostly of some Arabs and Berbers. Tariq literally swept the disorganized Visigoths armies commanded by don Rodrigo at the battle of Guadalete, where he died the same monarch; later, it undertook the conquest of the whole without encountering opposition, just until it reached the capital of the Kingdom, Toledo, city that opened wide.

Spurred on by a strong rivalry with respect to the successes achieved by his liberto, Musa Ibn Nusayr decided to appear in person at the peninsula, in the year 712, at the head of an army of 18,000 men, almost all of them are Yemeni Arabs and qaysíes, which arrived at the present-day city of Algeciras. From there, Ibn Nusayr chose to go against some Andalusian seats not occupied by Tariq before that establish contact with this one, which was consolidating positions newly conquered close to Toledo. The first place that fell into their hands was Medina Sidonia, Carmona, Alcalá de Guadaíra and Sevilla followed. From Seville, Ibn Nusayr continued their triumphant March to Merida, a city that still harbored some partisans of the late don Rodrigo. Merida little Visigoth nobility opposed a stubborn resistance to the troops of the Arab, to the point that it was forced to carry out a grueling siege that lasted almost a year, until the city capitulated in June of the year 713, not without that before had reached an agreement between both sides. While Ibn Nusayr was headed for Toledo to meet with Tariq, some small contingents of Visigothic forces scattered around the Seville region were in accordance with the inhabitants of Seville to kill about 80 Muslims of the few that guarnecían the city. Ibn Nusayr sent his son Abd al - Aziz Ibn Musa to quell the rebellion of the Sevillians and grab mist, Béjar and Ocsonoba.

After being conquered all the southern part of the peninsula, Ibn Nusayr not more delayed his meeting with Tariq, who went to the meeting in Talavera, event that was fraught with tension and resentment by Ibn Nusayr your liberto. According to the Chronicles, upon sighting his Lord, Tariq climbed on his horse and went to humbly offer their respects. But the Act of vassalage did not serve but to Ibn Nusayr expressed much hatred and envy that housed to Tariq, which reached several whip reproaching him with its excess of independence. Once he passed the storm between the two, together they marched to Toledo, whose City Tariq realized Ibn Nusayr of all conquests made and it gave you the hefty spoils that had managed to gather up to then. Throughout the winter of the year 713-714, Ibn Nusayr remained in Toledo as a genuine sovereign and it was then when commanded to coining first arabigo-espanolas gold coins that circulated around the peninsula with the inscription in nomine dei non deus nisi deus non solus deus alius. Ibn Nusayr Damascus sent a delegation composed by Alí Ibn Radah and Mugith Al - Rumi, this ultimate conqueror of Córdoba, together with other emissaries, with the mission to give account to the Caliph of the results obtained in the peninsula.

Upon arrival the spring, Ibn Nusayr undertook campaigns of conquest along with Tariq. Both besieged Zaragoza, which took no little resistance. From there they took the Roman road leading to Lérida, road which conquered a number of forts and towns not determined. Then, he returned to the peninsula-Mugith carrying the Caliphs order that both Musa and Tariq should be returned immediately to Damascus to accomplished account in person to the Caliph. Ibn Nusayr, who had in mind a campaign against the northern-most territories of the peninsula, ignored the order of the Caliph, and continued their campaigns convincing Mugith to join him and dilatase for some time return to Damascus. While Tariq completely looted Amaya square and occupied León and Astorga, Ibn Nusayr was interned by Asturian lands towards Oviedo and Gijón, forcing the natives of the place to take refuge in the Picos de Europa. But, when I was about to enter Galicia, once it had conquered Lugo, in the same city reached him a new emissary of the Caliph al - Walid, who notified him that it should be both in the presence of the Caliph at the price that was to make you aware of the facts of weapons which had been carried out each and submit you two financial reports of earnings such facts had been reported to the Caliphate.

To such order as compelling and intimidating, Ibn Nusayr left reluctantly promising Galician campaign and came out in the direction to Seville, whose journey was joined by the Aragonese sector from Tariq. In September of the year 714, once he left his son Abd al - Aziz as Governor of the peninsula with capital at Seville, Ibn Nusayr undertook the trip to Syria in the company of Tariq and all Arabs who chose to return to their lands of origin.

His arrival in Damascus, wrapped in mystery, only known for certain that it coincided with the death of al - Walid and the ascent to the throne of the Caliph, his brother Süleyman, who played Hardball with Ibn Nusayr and not had any consideration with the merits made by the illustrious Warrior. Accused by Tariq and Mugith of abuse of power and take over the fifth of the reserved loot to the Caliph, Suleyman imposed a strong penalty that left him virtually bankrupt, followed shortly after the execution of his three sons, circumstances that you eventually cause death, forgotten of all, in the year 98 Hegira (718).

Bibliography

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SADRÂ, Pedro: Invasion and Islamization: submission of Hispania and the formation of al - Andalus. (Madrid: Mapfre. 1994).

CHEJNE, Anwar G.: History of Muslim Spain. (Madrid: Cátedra. 1993).

GUICHARD, Pierre: The Muslim Spain: al - Andalus Umayyad, siglos VIII - XI. (Madrid: Group 16-issues of today. 1995).

UBIETO ARTETA, Antonio: Muslims, Christians and Jews, siglos VIII - XI. (Madrid: circle of Lectores-Debate. 1997).

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