King of Persia, born near Kubkan (Afghanistan) 22 October 1688 and died June 20, 1747 in Fethabad (Afghanistan). He was considered one of the last Asian conquerors. He was King of Persia from 1736 to 1747, and was known as Thamasp-Kulikan.
Nadir Shah, born as Nadir Kuli, belonged to the Kiriklu clan. This clan was the Turkish tribe of the Afshars and it had established in Northern Khurasan. Nadir's father was Imam Kuli Puchang and died when he was still a child. At age 17, was taken prisoner along with his mother by the Uzbeks, and after four years of slavery, managed to escape.
After his escape he entered the service of Babul-bey, Chief of the Kiriklu, whose daughter he married. On the death of his father-in-law, he was Governor of Khurasan, but his high-handed policy led to the dismissal. He wanted to take refuge next to an uncle, who was Governor of Kelat, but he rejected her, and then grouped to your around to several mercenaries, which took over the Government and made to strangle her uncle.
Nadir offered its services to Thamasp II, legitimate King of the dynasty of Safavid, whom he placed back on the throne. He began the reconquest of Persia, invaded by Afghans, and drove them out of Khurasan. They suffered heavy losses, but rather than flee, the Afghans slaughtered 3,000 citizens of Isfahan. In retaliation, the men of Nadir reached and killed the majority of Afghans who fled, while others died in the desert.
Prior to 1729, Nadir had freed Persia from Afghans. Thamasp II was crowned Shah, although it was little more than a political figure without power. While Nadir subjected a rebellion in Khurasan, Thamasp fought against the Turks, losing Georgia and Armenia. Enraged, Nadir dethroned Thamasp in 1732 and installed his son, Abbas III (1732-1740), on the throne, naming Regent. Within the period of two years, Nadir regained the lost territory and extended the Empire at the expense of the Turks and Russians.
March 20, 1736, Abbas III died violet and enigmatically, and Nadir emperor himself, had clamped both his power in Government that proclaimed it to the great of the Kingdom. Two years later, and as revenge for the amount of invasions that the Afghans had made on Iran, Nadir Shah decided to begin a war against them. Progress was made on Ghazni and Kabul, which were occupied in may 1738. The Governor Nasir Khan was then in Peshawar. Nadir Shah rode was the passage of Khyker in November 1738, and Nasir tried block with a force of 20,000 soldiers, Afghan, mostly sick, which left them in a minority with the strength of the cavalry's Nadir. Before December 1738, Nadir had managed to cross the Indus River and crossed the plains of the Punjah.
Zakaria Khan asked for help to Delhi to defend Lahore, but was unsuccessful and his army was annihilated in January 1739. He accepted a gift of two million rupees and retained Zakaria Khan as their Governor in Lahore. It took hostage a son of Zakaria and a son of the Minister, Lakhpat Rai, to prevent a possible rebellion.
After securing Lahore, it moved rapidly towards Delhi. He left Lahore on January 26 and reached Sirhind February 1, Ambala 7 and Karnal the 12th of the same month. With the fall of Kabul, the Delhi army was alerted about a possible attack from Nadir. Indian generals tried to cope in Karnal, and went up there to his army, but the lack of organization and discipline led them to lose 13 February 1739 in just three hours to 20,000 soldiers; the rest of the army was dispersed in all directions.
Nadir Shah entered Delhi as winner of March 9, 1739. Demanded 2.5 million rupees as a reward, but the Rangila Emperor had nothing on its property from the Government so Nadir took hold of the rubies of the Peacock and the Koh-i-Noor diamond throne. Nadir left Delhi at beginning of may 1739, taking numerous slaves, in addition to thousands of elephants, horses and camels which took as booty.
In 1740 Nadir sent to assassinate Thamasp II and their two young children. In that year he invaded Transovania and in 1743 renewed the war with Turkey. He also built a naval armada and conquered Oman. His greedy and intolerant nature was gradually becoming more pronounced. War actions and the maintenance of the armies created by it were overly burdensome to the Persian people could take, so Nadir imposed the death penalty for those who could not pay the taxes.
Most of the spoils he conquered was them for your own use, and showed no concern for the general welfare of the country. Nadir concentrated all power in his hands. It was a brilliant soldier but completely lacked interest for art and literature. The capital of Persia traveled to Mashhad, in Khurasan, near your favorite fortress.
In his last years as King, began to emerge rebellions against his dictatorial tenure. Nadir came to be increasingly distrustful and give signs of mental imbalance which led to an assassination attempt. He suspected that the organizer of the plot was his own son, Reza Quli Mirza (1719-1747), and as punishment, left him blind. Later, he executed all those nobles who had witnessed how it blinded his son. He came to an end that his own men's trust said that it was too dangerous to be close to him. In June of 1747 a group of Heads of Afshar and Kadjar, in conspiracy with the Corps de garde, surprised sleeping and killed him. The 5 July 1752 Ali Kuli Mirza arrived in Herat and was proclaimed King. All princes, sons of Nadir, were killed.
Nadir Shah was the more gifted of Persia military genius and became known as "the second Alejandro" or the "Napoleon of Persia". Its grandeur, its conquests insatiable desire and his egocentric behavior suggest a disorder narcissistic personality, and even in his later years, seemed to develop some paranoid tendencies. He was married four times and had 5 children and 15 grandchildren.
EAT, M. Afghanistan. Madrid, information and history, 1995.
GANKOVSKI, y., [et to the.] Afghanistan past and present. Moscow, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 1981.